how malaria is diagnoses?

 

The answer to how malaria is diagnoses is by clinical diagnosis/laboratory tests.

 

The results of the diagnosis are based on the symptoms of the patient and the physical findings at the examination.

Malaria is a leading cause of death among malarial patients worldwide. It is due to the delay in the diagnosis and treatment of malaria.

We must do early diagnosis and treatment of malaria so as the prevent the further spread of malaria at the community level. Thus, we should create awareness of early diagnosis and treatment.

 

how malaria is diagnoses?

 

The diagnosis of malaria depends on the of the Plasmodium parasite in the blood. The answer to how malaria is diagnoses is given below in detail :

 

how malaria is diagnoses?

1) Microscopy Diagnosis :

a. Blood smear :

  •  The blood smear is the “Gold standard” for the laboratory confirmation of malaria.
  • The health care provider collects the blood from the patient and spreads it into two types of blood films.
  • They are “thin-film” and “thick film” for the identification of the species of the malaria parasite.
  • The healthcare provider uses a microscope to examine blood films.
  • The blood film of the malarial patient shows the Plasmodium falciparum parasite.
  • A thick film is used for the screening test.
  • Thin films are used for the distinction of the malarial species.
  • Thick films allow the microscopist to screen a large volume of blood at a time in comparison to the thin film.
  • Thin films allow screening a small volume of the blood.
Advantages of microscopy diagnosis
  • It is simple.
  • The cost is low.
  • Provides valuable information in a short period.
  •  Thick films provide good screening tests.
  •  Thin films provide good species differentiation test.
Disadvantages of microscopic diagnosis
  • Distinguishing the different species of parasites may be difficult.
  • It is because the appearance of the parasite is misshaped in thin films.
  • Difficulty in the diagnosis of the species.
  • It is because the early trophozoites of all four species look similar.

 

b. Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC)

 

  • It is one of the tests of malaria that is used to detect the infection with malaria or other blood parasites.
  • QBC consists of three simple steps:

i.  Blood is taken in a Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) capillary tube.
ii.  The tube is coated with acridine orange and blood is concentrated by centrifuging.
iii.  Examination under the ultraviolet light source.

 

Advantages:
  • It gives results in a short period of time.
  •  More sensitive
  • It is simple to perform.
  • It uses a large volume of blood. Thus, this test is more sensitive.
Disadvantages:
  • The cost of the test is high.
  • It gives a less specific result.

2) Antigen Detection

Immunochromatographic dipstick (RDT)

  •  Health care provider uses RDT where reliable microscopy diagnosis is not available.
  • It gives results in a short period i.e. about 15-20 minutes.
  •  The blood is collected from the patient and the blood is applied to the sample pad along with certain reagents on the test card.
  • The presence of a specific band on the test card window indicates where there is the presence of any one of the species of malaria.

Advantages

  • It gives results in a short period of time.
  •  Can be applicable where there is no reliable microscopy test.
  •  It has high sensitivity
  •  It is simple to perform.

Disadvantages:

  •  Provides only a qualitative result.
  • It does not provide a quantitative result.
  •  Kits are expensive

3) Serological tests

 

  • It detects the antibody of malaria in the serum.
  • It indicates the presence of malaria in the past.
  • The serological tests:
    • Health care providers do not use serological tests routinely for diagnosis.
    • For epidemiological purposes i.e. testing a patient from an endemic area who has malaria infections.
    • The investigation of cryptic malaria through serological tests.
    • For transfusion blood screening.
  • It includes:
    i. ELISA test((Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)
    ii. IFA (Indirect Fluorescent Antibody ) test

4) Molecular diagnosis

 

The molecular test includes PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction test).

 

 PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) :

 

  •  The polymerase chain reaction is the technique to identify parasite genetic material of malaria in Plasmodium DNA.
  •  It uses whole blood collected in an anticoagulated tube (200 μl) or directly onto filter paper (5 μl).
Advantages:
  • It is simple to understand.
  • It is easy to use.
  • PCR is more sensitive than microscopy.
  •  Threshold detection: 0,1 parasites of malaria / μl if whole blood in a tube. 2 parasites of malaria / μl if using filter paper.
  • PCR test is more good for determining the species of the parasite in a mixed infection.
  • PCR identifies mutations.
  •  It tries to correlate to drug resistance.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

What is the most common accurate method to confirm a diagnosis of malaria?

 

The most common accurate method to confirm a diagnosis of malaria is the blood smear is the “Gold standard” for the laboratory confirmation of malaria. The health care provider collects the blood from the patient and spreads it into two types of blood films.

Which test is used to definitively diagnose malaria?

The blood smear is the “Gold standard” for the laboratory confirmation of malaria which definitively diagnoses malaria.

How do you test for malaria with RDT?

Healthcare provider uses RDT where reliable microscopy diagnosis is not available.
It gives results in a short period i.e. about 15-20 minutes.
The healthcare provider collects blood from the patient and is applied to the sample pad on the test card along with certain reagents.
The presence of a specific band on the test card window indicates where there is the presence of any one of the species of malaria.

What is the blood test for malaria called?

RDT is the blood test for malaria. We use it where reliable microscopy diagnosis is not available. It gives results in a short period i.e. about 15-20 minutes.

 

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