Categories
Pathology

What’s tuberculosis test?

What’s tuberculosis test?

 

The tuberculosis test for TB infection is of two types. They are :

  • Skin test ( Mantoux tuberculin skin test)
  • TB blood test.

 

What’s tuberculosis?

 

  • Tuberculosis is a specific infectious disease.
  • It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Tuberculosis is the leading cause of illness and death around the world.
  • The mode of transmission is by inhaling tiny droplets of saliva from the coughs or sneezes of a person positive with TB disease.
  • Tuberculosis is an infectious airborne disease and a major public health problem.

 

Forms of tuberculosis:

 

There are mainly two types of tuberculosis

Pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

 

Global impact of tuberculosis

 

  •  44% of the new cases occurred in South East Asia, 24% in the African region, and 13% of the new cases in the Western Pacific Region in the year 2018.

Mode of transmission

  • If the patient positive with pulmonary TB coughs or sneezes, the droplets get into the air from the lungs.
  • Thus, it transmits through droplet infection.

 

The population at risk?

  •  Elderly, poor
  • Migrants, refugees, travelers
  • Smokers, chronic alcoholics
  • A person with diabetes, HIV/AIDS.
  • Sex: Males than female
  • Age group: 15-54 years.
  • Malnutrition.

 

Clinical features of tuberculosis

 

Some general symptoms of tuberculosis include

  • Chronic cough
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Night sweats
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Haemoptysis

 

Prevention of Tuberculosis

 

  • B.C.G (Bacille Calmette Guerin) Vaccination
  • Contains living bacteria from an attenuated bovine strain of tubercle bacilli
  • Danish 1331 strain is used for the production of BCG

 

Dose

  • 0.5 ml Intradermal
  • 0.05 ml to infants below 4 weeks

 

Differences between TB Infection and TB Disease

 

The differences between TB infection and TB disease are :

     TB Infection :

  •   Germs of TB do not multiply and don’t make us sick but they stay in our lungs.
  • TB infection is not communicated from one person to another.

   TB Disease:

  •  Germs of TB stay in our body, they start to multiply and they move to other parts of the body from the lungs and thus make us sick.
  • It is contagious and communicable.
  • If we do not treat TB infection then it will develop to TB disease.

 

What is the tuberculosis test?

 

 

"What's

 

There are two types of tuberculosis tests. They are :

  • Skin test ( Mantoux tuberculin skin test)
  • TB blood test.

 

The tuberculosis test is for the test of  TB infection. A health care provider does it by a skin test or by TB blood test both not both at the same time.

 

The skin test gives two results either positive or negative.

 

The TB blood test is either the positive or the negative:

 

Factors for selecting which tuberculosis test to use includes :

  • the reason for testing
  • cost and
  • test availability.

 

 

1.Skin test (Mantoux tuberculin skin test )

 

  • The tuberculosis skin test is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid which is known as tuberculin, into the skin on the lower part of the arm.
  • It requires two visits to the health care provider.He/she injects tuberculin in the first visit and reads the test on the second visit.
  • A person who is injected with tuberculin should visit health care providers within 48 hours to 72 hours to look for a reaction on the arm.
  • The tuberculosis skin test result depends on the swelling, raised, or hard area on arm.

 

The skin test gives two results either positive or the negative :

 

a.Positive skin test :

  • It means his/her body is infected with TB bacteria.
  • There is a need for additional tests to identify if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.

 

b. Negative skin test :

  • It means his/her body is not infected with TB bacteria.
  • Similarly, it indicates that latent TB infection or TB disease is not likely.

 

The skin test is for the test of TB infection for children of age under five.

 

2.TB blood test :

 

  • It is also known as interferon-gamma release assays or IGRAs.
  • Two TB blood tests are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration(FDA)
  • They are available in the US: the QuantiFERON®–TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and the T-SPOT®.TB test (T-Spot).

 

For the TB blood test, a health care provider draws the blood of the patient and sends it to the laboratory for the analysis and results of the test.

 

 

The TB blood test is either the positive or the negative:

 

a.Positive TB blood test:

  • A positive TB blood test means there is the presence of TB bacteria in his/her body.
  • There is a need for additional tests to identify if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.

 

b.Negative TB blood test:

  • A negative TB blood test means TB bacteria are absent in his/her body.
  • Similarly Negative TB blood test indicates that latent TB infection or TB disease is not likely.

 

TB blood test is for :

  • People who have received the BCG vaccine.
  • People who have a difficult time returning for the second appointment to look for a reaction of the Tuberculin Skin Test.

 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 

What happens if you test positive for tuberculosis?

It means his/her body is infected with TB bacteria. There is a need for additional tests to identify if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.

Why would someone need a TB test?

Someone needs a TB test to determine whether he has TB bacteria or not. There are two types of tuberculosis tests. They are the Skin test ( Mantoux tuberculin skin test) and TB blood test.

Can you get TB from kissing?

TB is not spread through kissing. It spreads through the air when a person with TB of lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, or talks. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and joints, lymph glands and skin, and other tissues of the body.

 

Also read: How much do antibiotics for UTI?

How often Should Health-Care Workers Be Tested For TB?

     Also  Like our Official Facebook page by clicking here: 

7 replies on “What’s tuberculosis test?”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *