Categories
Pathology

What’s tuberculosis test?

What’s tuberculosis test?

 

The tuberculosis test for TB infection is of two types. They are :

  • Skin test ( Mantoux tuberculin skin test)
  • TB blood test.

 

What’s tuberculosis?

 

  • Tuberculosis is a specific infectious disease.
  • It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Tuberculosis is the leading cause of illness and death around the world.
  • The mode of transmission is by inhaling tiny droplets of saliva from the coughs or sneezes of a person positive with TB disease.
  • Tuberculosis is an infectious airborne disease and a major public health problem.

 

Forms of tuberculosis:

 

There are mainly two types of tuberculosis

Pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

 

Global impact of tuberculosis

 

  •  44% of the new cases occurred in South East Asia, 24% in the African region, and 13% of the new cases in the Western Pacific Region in the year 2018.

Mode of transmission

  • If the patient positive with pulmonary TB coughs or sneezes, the droplets get into the air from the lungs.
  • Thus, it transmits through droplet infection.

 

The population at risk?

  •  Elderly, poor
  • Migrants, refugees, travelers
  • Smokers, chronic alcoholics
  • A person with diabetes, HIV/AIDS.
  • Sex: Males than female
  • Age group: 15-54 years.
  • Malnutrition.

 

Clinical features of tuberculosis

 

Some general symptoms of tuberculosis include

  • Chronic cough
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Night sweats
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Haemoptysis

 

Prevention of Tuberculosis

 

  • B.C.G (Bacille Calmette Guerin) Vaccination
  • Contains living bacteria from an attenuated bovine strain of tubercle bacilli
  • Danish 1331 strain is used for the production of BCG

 

Dose

  • 0.5 ml Intradermal
  • 0.05 ml to infants below 4 weeks

 

Differences between TB Infection and TB Disease

 

The differences between TB infection and TB disease are :

     TB Infection :

  •   Germs of TB do not multiply and don’t make us sick but they stay in our lungs.
  • TB infection is not communicated from one person to another.

   TB Disease:

  •  Germs of TB stay in our body, they start to multiply and they move to other parts of the body from the lungs and thus make us sick.
  • It is contagious and communicable.
  • If we do not treat TB infection then it will develop to TB disease.

 

What is the tuberculosis test?

 

 

"What's

 

There are two types of tuberculosis tests. They are :

  • Skin test ( Mantoux tuberculin skin test)
  • TB blood test.

 

The tuberculosis test is for the test of  TB infection. A health care provider does it by a skin test or by TB blood test both not both at the same time.

 

The skin test gives two results either positive or negative.

 

The TB blood test is either the positive or the negative:

 

Factors for selecting which tuberculosis test to use includes :

  • the reason for testing
  • cost and
  • test availability.

 

 

1.Skin test (Mantoux tuberculin skin test )

 

  • The tuberculosis skin test is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid which is known as tuberculin, into the skin on the lower part of the arm.
  • It requires two visits to the health care provider.He/she injects tuberculin in the first visit and reads the test on the second visit.
  • A person who is injected with tuberculin should visit health care providers within 48 hours to 72 hours to look for a reaction on the arm.
  • The tuberculosis skin test result depends on the swelling, raised, or hard area on arm.

 

The skin test gives two results either positive or the negative :

 

a.Positive skin test :

  • It means his/her body is infected with TB bacteria.
  • There is a need for additional tests to identify if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.

 

b. Negative skin test :

  • It means his/her body is not infected with TB bacteria.
  • Similarly, it indicates that latent TB infection or TB disease is not likely.

 

The skin test is for the test of TB infection for children of age under five.

 

2.TB blood test :

 

  • It is also known as interferon-gamma release assays or IGRAs.
  • Two TB blood tests are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration(FDA)
  • They are available in the US: the QuantiFERON®–TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and the T-SPOT®.TB test (T-Spot).

 

For the TB blood test, a health care provider draws the blood of the patient and sends it to the laboratory for the analysis and results of the test.

 

 

The TB blood test is either the positive or the negative:

 

a.Positive TB blood test:

  • A positive TB blood test means there is the presence of TB bacteria in his/her body.
  • There is a need for additional tests to identify if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.

 

b.Negative TB blood test:

  • A negative TB blood test means TB bacteria are absent in his/her body.
  • Similarly Negative TB blood test indicates that latent TB infection or TB disease is not likely.

 

TB blood test is for :

  • People who have received the BCG vaccine.
  • People who have a difficult time returning for the second appointment to look for a reaction of the Tuberculin Skin Test.

 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 

What happens if you test positive for tuberculosis?

It means his/her body is infected with TB bacteria. There is a need for additional tests to identify if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.

Why would someone need a TB test?

Someone needs a TB test to determine whether he has TB bacteria or not. There are two types of tuberculosis tests. They are the Skin test ( Mantoux tuberculin skin test) and TB blood test.

Can you get TB from kissing?

TB is not spread through kissing. It spreads through the air when a person with TB of lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, or talks. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and joints, lymph glands and skin, and other tissues of the body.

 

Also read: How much do antibiotics for UTI?

How often Should Health-Care Workers Be Tested For TB?

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Categories
Health Education

Advantages and disadvantages of methods and media of health education.

Advantages and disadvantages of methods and media of health education

 

Here we are going to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of methods and the media of health education.

 

What is the method of health education?

 

Advantages and disadvantages of methods and medias of health education

Health education has a crucial role in the prevention of diseases and the reduction of health disparities.

 

Increasing health awareness and developing positive attitudes and behavior towards healthier living is an important need of people to cope with arising health problems as communicable and non-communicable diseases which are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of the people.

 

Methods are the techniques or ways which consist of activities in a series.

Carried out to communicate, deliver health in formations and ideas.

It helps to develop knowledge,  positive attitudes, and health-related skills.

 

What are Health Education types?

 

There are  three  methods  of health education which are given below:

  1. Individual Method
  2. Group Method
  3. Mass Method

 

Individual Method 

It includes the:-

  • Interview
  • Counseling

 

Group Method 

It includes the following:-

  • Group discussion
  • Mini lecture
  • Brainstorming
  • Role Play
  • Symposium
  • Demonstration
  • Panel Discussion
  • Workshop
  • Buzz Session, etc.

 

Mass Method 

The mass method includes the following:-

  • Lecture
  • Exhibition
  • Drama/ Museums
  • Films/Documentaries/TV Shows
  • Rally/Miking

 

Advantages of methods of health education

 

The following are the advantages of methods of health education :

  • Helpful for systematic teaching with the exchange of ideas.
  • Develop confidence, creativity, and ability to perform tasks.
  • Provide a maximum learning opportunity.
  • Encourage participant’s power of learning, thinking, and critical analysis.
  • Develops careful listening habits.
  • Develops innovative ideas.
  •  Helps in long-lasting memory of the subject matter.
  • Easy to identify their health problem.
  • Can go in-depth study to concern subject.

Disadvantages  of methods of health education

 

  • Might be time-consuming.
  • The organization of resources may not be adequate.
  • Needs more space,
  • May need more money, and
  • May require more manpower
  • Needs more time for preparation and planning.

 

What is media in health education?

 

 

Advantages and disadvantages of methods and medias of health education.

 

Media are teaching aids in health education.

Through health education medias health messages, knowledge, ideas, and information are disseminated or communicated among people.

 

Types of Health Education

 

There are  3 types of health education Media which are as follows:

 

  1. Audio Aids
  2. Visual Aids
  3. Audio-Visual Aid

 

Audio Aids 

Audio ads include the following:

  • Microphone
  • Telephone
  • Radio
  • Tape Recorder, etc.

Visual Aids 

Visual ads include the following:

  • Posters
  • Flip charts
  • Pamphlets
  • Flashcards
  • Newspapers, etc.

Audio-visual aids 

Audiovisual aids include the following:-

  • Films/Cinema
  • Documentaries/Videos
  • Television, etc.

 

Advantages  of  health education medias

Advantages of health education media:

  • Attracts a large audience.
  • Helps to communicate ideas quickly.
  • Creates emotions.
  • Helps to develop creativity among learners.
  • Promote creative thinking and oral communication skills.
  • Even the illiterate people can learn from seeing the picture. Example: posters.

 

Disadvantages of health education medias

Disadvantages of health education media:

  • Audiences are bound to listen only at a particular duration of time(Radio).
  • Some of the medias example: string puppets need high technical skills.
  • Preparation is very time-consuming.
  • One way communication may sometime lead to misunderstanding. (Example: Banners)

We have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of methods and media of health education.

 

Selection Criteria

Factors to be considered for the selection of appropriate methods of health education are as follows:-

  • Content of the subject matter
  • Level and group of the participants
  • Physical facilities
  • Need, interest, and maturity of the participants
  • Presentation skills
  • Allocation of time
  • Tradition, culture, and social and economic status.

The criteria for the appropriate selection of health education media are as follows:-

  • Consider the nature of the audience: literate or illiterate, child or adult or old, physically differently able (deaf or blind)
  • Size of the audience
  • Easy to use, see and understand
  • Simple and direct
  • Easy to handle and transport
  • Attractive, clean, and good working condition
  • Resources available in the target place and time: electricity, space, etc.
  • Cost-effective
  • Content of the topic

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

What is media of health education?

Health education media are teaching aids. Through health education medias health messages, knowledge, ideas, and information are disseminated or communicated among people.

What are health education methods?

Health Education methods are the techniques or ways in which a series of activities carried out to communicate, deliver health in formations and ideas, and develop knowledge, attitudes, and skills.

What are the 4 methods of learning?

The four methods of learning are: learning by doing, learning by hearing, learning by seeing, and learning by imitating.

What are the aims and objectives of health education?

The main aim of health education is to increase knowledge, develop positive attitudes, and to develop skills on health and health-related issues.

Also read: Are Anxiety Attacks And Panic Attacks The Same?

How often should healthcare workers be tested for tb?

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Categories
Anxiety

Are Anxiety Attacks And Panic Attacks The Same?

 Are Anxiety Attacks And Panic Attacks The Same?

People tend to think that anxiety attacks and panic attacks are the same thing. Very often we have seen people not knowing the difference between an anxiety attack and a panic attack.

However,  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders states that anxiety attacks and panic attacks vary in some of their symptoms. The cause of the attacks and the severity also varies.

Firstly, anxiety is the feeling of tension and extreme worried thoughts.

Despite that, there are physical symptoms of anxiety too.

What can cause Anxiety Disorders?

A lot of factors can contribute to anxiety.

  • Traumatic History / Personal History: Several factors like work stress, financial troubles or family equation can affect a person’s mental health. Some events like accidents, loss of a close person can cause trauma. This trauma can cause anxiety.
  • Family History: It is commonly seen that children whose parents are suffering from anxiety are more prone to anxiety themselves.
  • Personality : The level of handling stress and be reason behind anxiety.
  • Medical Causes: Certain underlying medical conditions can lead to anxiety. In some cases, anxiety shows other medical conditions.

 

Is Anxiety Attack And Stress The Same?

No, anxiety is not the same as stress.

Firstly, stress is feeling emotionally and physically tensed. Various reasons can cause stress.

However, in people with anxiety, removing stress may still cause anxiety attacks.

A specific cause as a result can lead to stress.

What Are The Symptoms Of Anxiety?

Symptoms are different in different people. Symptoms mainly seen are:

  • Feeling restless or nervous and tense
  • Not being able to focus on your work
  • Chest pain
  • Feeling constantly of an impending doom or trouble
  • Increased heart rate
  • Trouble in sleeping
  • Experiencing trouble in digestion and bowel movements.

Most importantly, the signs of anxiety is different for the cause of anxiety. Moreover, anxiety increases when the past event of trauma is around.

What Are The Complications And Prevention?

Anxiety can lead to serious complications.Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat it early.

The complications that anxiety can develop are:

  • Depression
  • Alcohol or substance abuse
  • Poor work quality
  • Poor quality of life
  • Health issues like digestive problems
  • Suicidal tendencies

Therefore, to avoid the complications further actions can be taken:

  • First of all, timely diagnosis can save critical conditions
  • Then, making sure that the person is not doing substance abuse due to this problem.
  • Lastly, getting proper medical help

However, It is important to tend to the person by their peers and family. It is necessary to create a loving and healthy environment.

What Are Panic Attacks?

Panic attacks are sudden onset of intense fear. This fear leads to physical disturbances even though there is no real danger.

Panic attacks are however, very dangerous. The person having a panic attack usually feel they are about to pass out and sometimes, even feel like they are dying.

Although when a stress factor is removed, the panic attack disappears.

However, if panic over the fact that another panic attack may occur persists for longer than a month, the condition is called panic disorder.

What Are The Symptoms Of Panic Attacks?

Firstly, Panic attacks are mainly related to mental state. Although, it is very common to see physical symptoms in panic attacks.

  • Feeling of impending danger
  • Fear of loss of control of death
  • Hot flashes and chills
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Dizziness, nauseated feeling
  • Feeling of detachment

Even though these symptoms generally occur, the fear of another attack increases panic in a patient.

What Are The Complications And Prevention Methods?

Panic is a state of being mentally affected. Therefore, it is common to develop complications like:

  • Detachment from social life
  • Financial problems as a result of lack of work efficiency
  • Developing specific phobias

The prevention can be attained on a clinical and personal level:

  • First of all, timely recognition and diagnosis
  • The, seeking clinical help as well as personal help from peers and family
  • Replacing daily stressful activity. Hence, indulging in other activities.

Lastly, it is important to look after our own mental health and look out for people we care for.

References:

Panic Disorder

Anxiety attacks-Anatomy,medical history and diagnosis

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Categories
Urology

How much do antibiotics for UTI cost ?

Cost of UTI antibiotics

Antibiotics for UTI treatment cost range from 5$ to 500$ . A urine culture can cost more than 100$.

 

What is Urinary Tract Infection UTI?

 

Urinary Tract infections are infections of the urinary tract.

 

The main symptoms of urinary tract infection are:
• A burning feeling when you urinate
• Frequent urination
Bacteria cause most urinary tract infection.

 

Health center generally cure urinary tract infection with antibiotics

 

Antibiotics suppress the growth of bacteria and kill it.

 

Older people generally test positive for urinary tract infection.

 

There is no need to do urine test for no clear symptom of urinary tract infection.

 

If the test in done without appearance of the symptoms it may bring another complication.

 

 

This complication is especially seen in older adults.

 

More complication results more cost of UTI antibiotics.

 

Following are some reasons of it:

 

Urine tests usually don’t help if you don’t have
UTI symptoms.

 

People of older age can have bacteria in their urine despite of the fact that they don’t have developed Urinary Tract Infection.

 

This fact is truly seen for nearly all of medical center residents.

 

Medical professional will suggest for  urine test if an older adult has clear symptoms of urinary tract infection,

 

UTI symptoms include  increased convolution , irritability, or dizziness.

 

The test has high chance of showing some bacteria.

 

For this purpose the antibiotics for urinary tract infection may be needed which costs from 50-500$.

 

Tests & treatments for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older patients.

 

When you need them—and when you don’t ?

 

But if the bacteria is in the urine and not causing a real infection, the antibiotic won’t cure  the clear symptoms.

 

The reasons such as irritation, convolution fall may be symptoms of another disease so it need further testing.

Cost of antibiotics for UTi

Antibiotics can cause serious problems.

 

Antibiotics can have other  side effects developed especially  in older patients .H

 

Side effects of the antibiotics  can develop fever, rash, nausea.

 

And vomiting, diarrhea, ruptured tendons, nerve damage, kidney failure.

 

Excess use of  antibiotics often can cause vaginal yeast infections.

 

Also it causes severe diarrhea, a hospital stay, and even death in older patients.

 

Also, there is high chance of fatal case for old patients as the antibiotic can react with other medicine which they take.

 

Avoid antibiotics when you can Lower you cost of UTI antibiotics

 

Unnecessary antibiotics don’t offer any benefits.

 

Do not take antibiotics for bacteria in the urine frequent.

 

Antibiotics can kill “friendly” germs and help drug resistant bacteria to grow.

 

Resistant bacteria cause illnesses that are harder to cure and more costly to treat.

 

Treatment of drug resistant bacteria is not easy.

 

Medical professionals  have to issue other different antibiotics.

 

The use of untested medicine can also cause fatal effect .

 

So the cost of UTI medicine treatment can increase heavily.

 

When should you have a urine test to have low UTI antibiotics cost?

 

You should get a urine test if you have new or worsening urinary symptoms like red color , frequent urge.

 

You should also get a urine test if you have a fever or if a blood test suggests that you have an infection.

 

Before testing your urine note that you don’t have other complications or disease.

 

It includes fever, cough or any form of illness which causes the urine color to change from normal.

 

Early diagnosis of UTI cause low cost of UTI antibiotics.

 

Also Read :- How often should healthcare workers be tested for tb?

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Categories
testing

How Often Should Health-Care Workers Be Tested For TB?

Introduction to health care workers tb test

Health-care Workers fall under high risk group to Tuberculosis (TB), due to their occupational exposure to infectious diseases. So it becomes essential to conduct testing of Health-Care Workers for TB infection.

The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and NTCA (National Tuberculosis Controllers Association) have created updated guidelines regarding TB screening and testing in Healthcare setups in 2019. These guidelines provide structural framework for the screening, testing, frequency of testing and preventive treatment for health care workers.

 

How Often And When Should The Health-Care Workers  Be Tested?

The updated guidelines made the following changes in terms of screening and testing:

  • Decrease in frequency of TB screening for the Health-Care Workers in various settings. Change in criteria of screening frequency changed.
  • Clear testing criteria of the health care professionals.

Guidelines for the frequency of testing and criteria of the testing of TB in Healthcare setting:

  • Baseline testing of health professional required. Annual additional tests are not performed if the exposure to the infection is null.
  • Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) or Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) with confirmed exposure to TB and who have no prior documented TB infection or Latent TB Infection (LTBI),
  • In personnel with newly positive test result, symptom evaluation and chest radiography with followup as indicated,
  •  Unless contraindicated, personnel with untreated Latent TB Infection encouraged to undergo treatment,
  • Annual symptom based screening for individuals with untreated LTBI,
  • The health professionals are provided with annual education on TB.

 

What Is TB Risk Assessment And How It Affects TB Screening Process In Health- Care Setups?

Risk Assessment is evaluation process to see the risk of transmission of Mycobacterum tuberculosis in a setting. The testing should be done even when there is no recent exposure to TB. Risk assessment is essential to check the status of a health setup and proper occupational health measures.

Risk Assessment helps in effective prevention of the spread. It checks the need of improvement in the strategies to adopt Administrative, Environmental and Respiratory Protection Control required for a health care settings.

TB Screening According To Risk Assessment:

Risk Assessment classifies screening into three groups:

  1. Low Risk Setup : Conduct a baseline screening test when hiring the individual. In such setup, annual screening is not necessary.
  • Medium Risk Setup : Conduct a baseline screening test when hiring the health professional . After baseline screening, the individuals need to be assessed annually by symptom screening or test for M. tuberculosis. Individuals with a baseline positive M. tuberculosis infection should receive one chest radiograph result to exclude TB disease.
  • Screening for Health-Care Workers or settings classified as Potential Ongoing Transmission: Testing is performed in a gap of 8 to 10 weeks until the infection transmission seems to be under control and there is no apparent ongoing transmission in the setting.

 

The Potential Ongoing Transmission stage should be treated with urgency and prompt investigation and preventive measures should be taken. It is used as a secondary classification. Even when the disease is under control and no apparent transmission is seen, the hospital setting should be treated as Medium Risk for one year.

In classification of Low and Medium Risk settings, the setting is classified and treated as Medium Risk setup.

 

The Essentials of TB Infection Control:

Any health care setting needs a prompt plan of action to control the spread of TB infection through detection, precautions and treatment facilities. The control program is summarized into three categories:

  1. Administrative controls:  It includes management to reduce risk of exposure to TB infected people. Administrative control measures include :conduction of a TB risk assessment of a setting, educating the health care workers on aspects like prevention and treatment of TB infection, use of epidemiological study methods for prevention, screening and testing of health care workers who are at a risk of infection, effective work practices for the management of patients.
  2. Environmental controls: The transmission of TB infection is usually through droplets of the infected person. In order to prevent transmission, reduction of infectious droplet is important. The use of general ventilation and HEPA ( High Efficiency Particulate Air) helps decrease the contaminated droplet concentration in air.
  3. Respiratory-Protection controls: The Administrative and Environmental approach deal with minimizing the exposure of the patient to the infection. Respiratory Protection control is used in situations of high exposure areas, like in Health care workers. In this control, training Health care workers on respiratory protection is done and respiratory hygiene is taught.

 

Reference : https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5417a1.htm?s_cid=rr5417a1_e