Most of the health education program is designed by precede proceed model. There can be many example of precede proceed model. Precede proceed model example is very useful tool to design the various health education program. Precede-proceed model example on solid waste management is discussed below.
The PRECEDE-PROCEED model was developed as a planning framework from which health education and health promotion programs could be designed. PRECEDE stands for “Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Factors in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation.” PROCEED, which stands for “policy, regulatory, and organizational constructs in educational and environmental development.”
Solid waste management
Solid waste is any unwanted or discarded material that is not a liquid or a gas. It includes; garbage (food waste), rubbish (paper, plastics, wood, metals, throw away container, glass), demolition products (bricks, masonry, pipes, gravel, and sand), sewage (sludge & solid from the coarse screening), dead animals, manure & other discarded material.
All these solid wastes are collected and treated to make less harmful, recycled and reused. As long as people have been living in settlements and residential areas, garbage or solid waste has been a big issue. It is all about how solid waste can be changed and used as a valuable resource.
Population growth, rural and urban development, lifestyle changes and the consequent change in household consumption patterns have created problems in modern societies. The change of household consumption pattern has changed the waste volume and the waste characteristics or composition. Collection frequency and extent of salvaging and recycling of wastes.
The outcome of indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes exposed to human can cause widespread of infectious diseases, cholera, diarrhea, typhoid fever, waterway blockage which leads to infestation of flies, ticks and breeding of mosquitoes that cause malaria and other plagues.
Behavioral and environmental assessment
The amount of solid wastes produced depends on the geographic location like more amount of wastes are produced n hill and terai in comparison to mountain regions. Geographic location also and according to the season of the year the amount of organic wastes varies.
Public attitudes towards the more consumption of market based products leads to the more production of wastes like paper, plastics, throw away containers etc.
Use of kitchen gardens in the house decreases the wastes. Attitude of people about the “no littering” in public places also helps in reduction of solid wastes.
Educational assessment of factors contributing to prioritized behavior
Knowledge on proper ways to manage solid waste and importance of solid waste management.
Knowledge about recycling programs has a positive relationship with recycling practice. Generally, the more knowledge a household has about recycle materials and their impact on the natural world, the more likely they will practice it. Knowing the harmful effects of haphazard waste disposal.
Family practices and attitude towards the disposal of solid waste. Practicing the proper ways of segregation and disposal of wastes. Awareness through the different medias like TV, FM, Posters about the segregation of wastes like degradable non degradable and disposing them separately. Giving health education about the solid waste management.
Different organizations, NGOs, INGOs working on the sector of solid waste management. Availability of IEC materials. Punishment if there is haphazard disposal of solid wastes.
Administrative and policy assessment.
The main objectives of solid waste management policy are to
(i) make SWM simple and effective,
(ii) minimize the impact of solid waste on the environment and public health,
(iii) treat solid waste as a resource,
(iv)include private sector participation, and
(v) improve public participation by increasing public awareness about sanitation.
Similarly, a few other municipalities have also begun to enforce punishments and penalties for violators of SWM directives. Moreover, many local governments have operational guidelines for the operation of landfill sites and controlled dumping sites.
Setting Goals, Objectives and Indicators
- To decease the haphazard disposal of solid wastes and initiate the proper solid waste management technique.
- To provide health education and knowledge about the proper segregation and disposal of solid waste.
- To aware about the various consequences due to the improper disposal of wastes.
- 90% of participants will have basic knowledge about the segregation of wastes.
- 90% of participants will show the commitment of practicing proper disposal of wastes.
- The prevalence improper management of solid wastes will reduce.
- 95% of the household will reduce the use of plastic bags and other non-degradable things.
- 90% household will practice the resource recovery method i.e. making compost manure from degradable wastes and reducing and reusing of the goods.
Development of Content and Messages
- Introduction to the solid wastes produced in household level and their proper segregation.
- Disposal mechanism of segregated wastes. The resource recovery method i.e. making compost manure from degradable wastes and reducing and reusing of the goods.
- Harmful effects of haphazard disposal of wastes
- Introduction to various disease caused when these wastes get exposed to our water sources.
- National laws, policies and punishments
Selection of Methods and Medias
Method and medias
Role play, Mini lecture, Workshop, Discussions, Posters, Film shows, Videos, Charts, etc.
- Community people
- School student of grade 8 and 9.
Identification of resources
- Human: program planner (self), Health educators: Health advocates, etc.
- Money: fund available from NGOs and donor agencies and IEC materials.
- Transportation facilities
- Human: local leaders, health staffs
- Materials: Equipment, Furniture, Speaker, Projector, costumes, etc.
- Infrastructure: Hall.
- Local level interaction and orientation about the program.
- Selection of target population, communicate them through community key leaders
- Identify the place to conduct program
- Conduct program as plan of action
- Mobilizing resources
- Networking and coordination, commitment from the participants
Monitoring of the program
- There will be one monitoring and evaluation sub-committee for the program.
- The focal person for the program monitors and advise where required, and will ensure that there is good accountability and also act as process facilitator.
- The Monitoring committee will monitor in line with log framework of the program.
- The committee will monitor the program one time a month.
- Each monitoring will produce a report and the monitoring findings will be utilized to modify and strengthen the health education program.
- Criteria of Evaluation will be
- Adequacy (Implementation strategies)
- Relevancy (Activities and the set objectives)
- Efficiency of program
- Appropriateness of the program
- Based on the criteria evaluation will be during:
- Planning Evaluation (Beginning of the program)
- Progress Evaluation (Middle of the program)
- Achievement Evaluation (End of the program)
- Plan of action, objectives, immediate activities, Materials, Methods, media, Resource etc.
- Assessment of knowledge (through Pretest and post-test evaluation)
- Assessment of change behavior
- Decreased the amount of wastes thrown haphazardly on the roads and in rivers and rivulets
- Decrease in the prevalence of people suffering from diarrhea, typhoid and other disease caused when wastes are exposed to the water resources.
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