Categories
Contagious disease

Syphilis is caused by which bacteria?

Syphilis is caused by an elongated and motile bacteria called Treponema pallidum. Firstly, it enters host tissue by breaking the epithelium. Syphilis include a lot of symptoms.

Syphilis is caused by bacteria which has following structure:

Bacteria that causes syphilis is thin , flat and wavy bacteria with tapering ends. It can move backward and forward as well as can bend its whole body.

Bacteria is 10μm long and 0.1-0.2μm wide.

Syphilis:

Syphilis is a common disease that is caused by a bacteria through sexual contact. As few as 60 bacteria can cause the infection.

Syphilis is caused by which bacteria
Syphilis. Historical medical illustration showing annular secondary syphilis lesions on the neck and shoulders of two female patients. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The disease has three stages, first an ulcer (known as a chancre) at the site of infection, followed several weeks later by a systemic skin rash. The third stage, which follows a latency period that can last for years, involves spread to the organs and nervous system and can cause mental illness and death. From Atlas of Venereal and Skin Diseases by Prince Albert Morrow, published in 1889.

Incubation period of syphilis is 10-90 days. Syphilis is also caused by Nesseria Gonorrhea which is a bacteria too.

There are 3 stages of syphilis:-

  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary

Congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is a disease that occurs when a mother with syphilis passes the infection on to her baby during pregnancy.

It can occur at any stage of pregnancy.

Symptoms of syphilis:

The symptoms of syphilis may vary according to the stages.

Primary Syphilis

The symptoms of primary syphilis include:

  •  A small, painless primary lesion called chancre is formed.
  • Also, chancre is covered by a thick, lesions which is very rich in bacteria.
  • Common sites of infection are genitalia, mouth and nipples.
  •  As well as regional lymph nodes also swell.

Secondary Syphilis

The symptoms of secondary syphilis include:

  • Rose-colored rashes , mucus patches appears in the pharynx and oral region.
  • sore throat.
  • fever.
  •  similarly, swollen lymph glands
  • headaches
  • tiredness
  • muscle aches
  • wart-like patches around skin folds or genitals.
  • Also, loss of appetite.

Tertiary Syphilis

The symptoms of tertiary syphilis include:

  • meningitis.
  • strokes.
  • dementia symptoms.
  • loss of co-ordination.
  • numbness.
  • vision problems or blindness.
  • heart problems.

Complications arises due to syphilis:

The complications that can arise due to syphilis are:

  •  Bumps and tumor  appear in the last stage
  • Neurological conditions for example Stroke, Meningitis, Dementia
  • Problem with Cardiovascular system
  • Likewise, HIV and AIDS
  • Pregnancy and childbirth issues

Transmission of syphilis:

  • Transmission of syphilis can still occur during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
  • Also, direct contact with syphilitic sore, known as a chancre.

Diagnosis of syphilis:

Syphilis is diagnoses by the following ways:

  1. Physical examination
  2. Blood test
  3. Lumbar puncture – A procedure to collect cerebral spinal fluid sample
  4. ELISA

Treatment of syphilis:

Following antibiotics are used for the treatment of syphilis:

  • Benzathine penicillin G
  • Erythromycin
  • Tetracycline
  • Cefriaxone( antibiotics)

Latent syphilis:

Latent syphilis is a stage of infection where no symptoms appear but laboratory diagnosis test come positive.

But it occurs after the secondary lesions disappear.

Diagnosis of Latent Syphilis:

Latent syphilis is only diagnosed by performing different serological test however no symptoms are seen during this period.

Preventive Measures of syphilis:

  • Avoid of sexual contact with diseased individual.
  • Use physical barriers and antiseptics.
  • Prompt and adequate treatment of all new cases.
  •  Also, maintain hygiene to prevent the cause of syphilis.

Parts of body where syphilis occurs:

Syphilis  can occur at the external genitals, in the vagina, around the anus , or in the rectum, or in or around the mouth.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

What happens when syphilis left untreated?

However we should consult to doctor if we have syphilis.

On the other hand, if syphilis left untreated, bacteria reaches to vital organs of the body such as brain, lungs, etc through blood stream.

If bacteria reaches brain through blood it can cause menengitis.

What is transfusion syphilis?

Syphilis which is acquired by unsafe blood transfusion.

However, in this kind of syphilis primary chancre does not occur.

Which medicine should be given to the person who is allergic to penicillin?

Erythromycin, Tetracycline, etc are the antibiotics that we can give to the patient allergic to penicillin.

Also read:How Malaria is diagnoses?

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Categories
Contagious disease

Can scabies make you sick?

Scabies is an itchy skin condition. It is caused by a human itch mite, called Sarcoptes scabiei. It is a highly contagious infestation of the skin. Scabies makes you sick.

 

 

 Can scabies me you sick?

 

Can scabies make you sick?

 

 

  • Human scabies is a highly contagious infestation of the skin which is caused by the human itch mite i.e. Sarcoptes scabiei.
  • Derived from a Latin word “scabere” meaning “to scratch”, mites called Sarcoptes scabiei
  • Also known as the seven-year itch.
  • Not an infection, but an infestation.
  • Scabies is classified by the W.H.O as a water-related disease.
  • Females infest humans and are 0.3 mm-0.4 mm long; the males are about half this size.
  • The scabies mite is not able to fly or jump thus they crawl.
  • Occurs worldwide and is very common.
  • It is epidemics in hospitals and the institutions which provide long term care services including nursing homes.
  • Very sensitive to their environment. They can live in a host body for 24-36 hours under many conditions.
  • The mites that infest animals are not similar to the mites that infect humans.
  • The scabies mite that infests animals is mange.
  • Mange mites can spread to humans and cause minor itching and redness; will die out on their own, limiting symptoms in humans.
  • Our pets must be treated because it may cause itchy skin and loss of fur in them.
  • We cannot see human scabies mite with our naked eyes thus we need a microscope.

 

Pathophysiology

 

 

  • The lifecycle of scabies mites is about 30 days in human skin.
  • Females deposit 60-90 eggs as they burrow deep down the skin.
  • Male mite dies after copulation.
  • After 4–6 weeks, the patient develops an allergic reaction to the presence of mite proteins and feces, causing an intense itch.
  • Scratching can lead to inoculation of the skin with bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, leading to the development of impetigo (skin sores), especially in the tropics.
  • Mites move through the top layers of the skin by secreting proteases that degrade stratum corneum, feed on dissolved tissue but do not ingest blood, and Scybala(feces) are left behind as they travel through the epidermis, creating linear lesions.

 

Incubation period

 

  • Variable, but may take 14 days or more before itching occurs.

 

Mode of transmission:

 

 

  • Scabies is spread from an infected person through direct skin to skin contact.
  • It is spread easily among household members, sex partners, and nursing homes.
  • It is spread indirectly if other people come in contact with things of an infected person such as towels, clothes, or bedding. But, it is less common.
  • Contact with the infected person should be for long period. A quick handshake or hug will not spread scabies.

 

The population at risk:

 

 

  • People living in crowded populations.
  • Sexually active adults
  • People in child care facilities
  • Prison inmates
  • People in institutional care
  • People with weakened immune systems.

 

Common symptoms

 

Scabies makes you sick. It includes the following symptoms:

  • Intense itching, especially at night
  • A pimple-like rash
  • Scales or blisters
  • Sores caused by scratching.
  • Rashes appear in the female breasts in the skin of the nipple.
  • Red skin

 

  Complications of Scabies:

 

Scabies makes you sick. It includes the following complications :

I.Secondary infection,

II.Crusted scabies,

III. Persistent itchy red nodules may remain on genitals or armpits of children.

 

I. Secondary infection:

 

  • Repeatedly scratching itchy skin caused by scabies may break the skin’s surface, making it more vulnerable to develop a bacterial skin infection, such as impetigo.
  • Antibiotics may be recommended to control secondary infection.

 

II. Crusted scabies :

 

  • This condition occurs particularly in some immuno-suppressed patients, including those with HIV/AIDS.
  • Characterized by hyper-infestation with millions of mites, producing widespread scale and crust, often without significant itching.
  • Patients are a significant source of reinfection to the rest of the surrounding community.

 

Where Does Scabies Mites Live?

For young children, we can find parasite  in these areas:

  • The scalp
  • The neck
  • The soles of the feet
  • The palms of their hand

For adults, we can find scabies in these areas:

  • Around the waist.
  • In between the fingers.
  • Around the patella.
  • Around the axilla.

Often times, the parasite will stay in places where the person keeps jewelry;  under bracelets, etc.

 

 

Diagnosis:

 

  • The doctor takes Skin Scrapings from the burrows by the use of a microscope for the identification of the mites, eggs, or feces of mites.

 

Preventive Measures:

 

  • Health awareness among the general population about scabies and it’s the mode of transmission.
  • Encourage people for early diagnosis and treatment.
  • Increase awareness about the importance of maintaining proper personal hygiene.

Control Of Case:

 

  • Primary management involves the application of a topical scabicide such as permethrin 5% (caution in children aged under 6 months), 5% malathion in aqueous base, 10–25% benzyl benzoate emulsion or 5–10% sulfur ointment applied all over the body.

 

 

Control of Environment:

 

 

  • Clothing, towels, and bedclothes used by the infested person in the 48 hours before treatment should be laundered using the hot cycle, or dry cleaned.
  • Alternatively, items may be placed in a plastic bag and sealed for 1 week before laundering, as the mite cannot survive long periods of the human body.

 

Treatment:

 

  • The number of medications is effective.
  • Treatment should involve the entire household and any others who have had recent, prolonged contact with the infected individual. Antihistamines and prescription of anti-inflammatory agents.
  • No vaccine

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

 

What happens if scabies are left untreated?

If scabies is left untreated for a longer period of time, Scabies will continue for more months and further complications may arise from it.

Does Scabies weaken your immune system?

Crusted scabies occurs particularly in some immuno-suppressed patients, including those with HIV/AIDS, diabetes, etc.

Can scabies make you tired?

Scabies makes you sick. It includes the following symptoms: Intense itching, especially at night, fatigue, a pimple-like rash, Scales or blisters, Sores caused by scratching.

Can you get rid of scabies forever?

Primary management involves the application of a topical scabicide such as permethrin 5% (caution in children aged under 6 months), 5% malathion in aqueous base, 10–25% benzyl benzoate emulsion or 5–10% sulfur ointment applied all over the body.

 

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