[PDF]cardiovascular disease journal articles pdf

Cardiovascular disease journal articles pdf refer to journal articles of cardiovascular disease which is published in pdf format. Here you can download cardiovascular disease journal articles by clicking the link below

cardiovascular disease journal articles pdf

You can download the cardiovascular disease journal articles pdf by clicking the link below:

Cardiovascular-disease-pdf

 

Cardiovascular diseases

They refer to the group of diseases of the heart and the vascular system.

Circulatory system diseases are the leading cause of death in both developed as well as developing countries.

The major conditions of cardiovascular diseases include the following :

  • Ischemic heart disease(IHD)
  • Hypertension(HTN)
  • Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
  • Congenital heart disease, and /or
  • Rheumatic heart disease(RHD)

 

What are the symptoms of cardiovascular diseases?

The major symptoms of cardiovascular diseases include:

  1. Angina: It is chest pain or discomfort resulting due to a lack of oxygen-rich blood in our heart muscle. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in our chest. The discomfort also can occur in our shoulders, neck, jaw, arms, or back.
  2. Heart failure: It is a serious, chronic, and progressive condition in which heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs for blood and oxygen.
  3. Heart attack: It is a serious medical emergency in which the supply of the blood to the heart is suddenly blocked, usually by a blood clot.

Common symptoms of heart attack

Heart attack and stroke are the acute events that resulted due to the blockage that prevents the flowing of blood to the heart or brain. Common symptoms of a heart attack include the following:

  • Pain or discomfort in the center of the chest.
  • Pain or discomfort in the arms, the left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling sick or vomiting, feeling light-headed or faint
  • Becoming pale.
  • Breaking into a cold sweat.

 

Common symptoms of heart stroke

Common symptoms of stroke include the following:

  • Slurred speech.
  • Dizziness
  • Difficulty in walking and loss of balance of the body.
  • Unconsciousness and fainting
  • Severe headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body

 

What are the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases?

The present mortality rates are the consequences of previous exposure to risk factors such as inappropriate nutrition, insufficient physical activity, and increased tobacco consumption.

Overweight, central obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, high cholesterol level, and low cardio-respiratory fitness are biological factors contributing to increased risk.

 

The risk factors of cardiovascular diseases can be modifiable risk factors or nonmodifiable risk factors.

 

Signs of increase in cardiovascular disease

The rise in CVDs reflects a significant change in the following factors:

  • Diet habits- more energy-dense and nutrient-poor diets, food market
  • Physical activity levels and
  • Tobacco consumption

Underlying factors of Cardiovascular disease

Following are the underlying factors of cardiovascular disease:

  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Economic development
  • Imbalanced nutrition
  • Reduced physical activity
  • Change in lifestyle

How cardiovascular diseases can be prevented?

Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented with the help of the following points:

  1. Reducing the risk of recurrence and death among who have already had heart attacks and strokes
  2. Reducing risk among an entire population
  3. Preventive measures and strategies

Reducing the risk of recurrence and death among who have already had heart attacks and strokes

  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs
  • Low doses of common BP-lowering drugs
  • Aspirin

Reducing risk among an entire population

  • Population-wide interventions
  • Effective and broad health promotion policies
  • Better use of resources
  • Economic and educational policies and programs

Preventive measures and strategies

  • Substitute non-hydrogenated unsaturated fats (especially polyunsaturated fat) for saturated and trans-fats;
  • Increase the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil or plant sources;
  • Consume a diet high in fruits vegetables, nuts and whole grains, and low in refined grains.
  • Avoid excessively salty or sugary foods.
  • At least 30 minutes of regular physical activity daily
  • Avoid smoking
  • Maintain a healthy weight.

 

Also, read the following:

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How Often Should Health-Care Workers Be Tested For TB?

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