Cardiovascular diseases examples

 

Cardiovascular diseases examples :

  1. Ischemic heart disease,
  2. Hypertension,
  3. Cerebrovascular disease (stroke),
  4. Congenital heart disease, and/or,
  5. Rheumatic heart disease 

 

  • Cardiovascular diseases are the group of diseases of the heart and vascular system.
  • In other words, cardiovascular diseases are diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels.
  • They are the leading cause of death in both developed as well as developing countries.
  • Also, cardiovascular diseases are major public health problems.
  • Therefore, we are going to discuss cardiovascular disease examples in detail.

Cardiovascular diseases examples

Cardiovascular diseases examples

 

 

Cardiovascular diseases examples :

  • Ischemic heart disease (IHD)
  • Hypertension (HTN)
  • Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
  • Congenital heart disease, and/or
  • Rheumatic heart disease (RHD)

 

What are the symptoms of cardiovascular diseases?

 

 

 

The major symptoms of cardiovascular diseases include:

Firstly it includes angina,  second heart failure, and most importantly heart attack.

Angina:

  • Angina is defined as chest pain towards the left arm due to the less supply of oxygen.
  • We may feel discomfort in our chest and we may feel pressure in our chest.
  • Similarly, we can feel discomfort in our arms, neck, jaws, shoulders, and backside.

 

Heart failure:

  • The heart muscle cannot pump enough blood in the heart failure condition. Therefore there is a lack of blood and oxygen in our body.

 

Heart attack:

  • It is a sudden blockage of the flow of the blood to the heart by which the level of oxygen is reduced in the heart and the heart stops.

Common symptoms of heart attack

 

  • Heart attack and stroke are acute events.
  • Resulted because of the blockage that prevents the flowing of blood to the heart or brain.
  • In other words, a blockage is developed that prevents the flow of blood to the heart or brain.
  • Symptoms of a heart attack :
  • Chest pain
  • Anxiety
  • Cough
  • Fainting
  • Vomiting
  • Shortness of breath.

Common symptoms of heart stroke

 

Common symptoms of stroke include the following:

  • Problems in speech.
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of body balance.
  • Unconsciousness and fainting
  • Severe headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Decreased sensation or numbness.
  • Changes in the mood.

 

What are the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases?

 

  • The risk factors of cardiovascular diseases can be divided into modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors.
  • Overweight, central obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, high cholesterol level, and low cardio-respiratory fitness are biological factors.

 

Modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors include:

 

Non-modifiable Modifiable
Age Cigarette smoking
Sex Hypertension
Family history High serum cholesterol
Genetic factors Diabetes
Personality Obesity
Sedentary life
Stress

 

Cardiovascular diseases examples

 

  • In this paragraph, we will discuss cardiovascular disease examples. Cardiovascular disease, examples include firstly, Ischaemic heart disease,
  • Second hypertension,
  • Moreover Cerebrovascular disease (stroke),
  • Also, Congenital heart disease, and/or
  • Rheumatic heart disease.
  • Therefore, the explanations of these conditions are given below.
  • For instance, we will discuss Ischaemic heart diseases at first.

 

 

Ischemic heart disease

Also known as Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

The ischemic heart disease is a condition in which the supply of the blood and oxygen in the myocardium is not adequate.

It is due to less supply of oxygen or more demand for oxygen. Thus imbalance between them.

Ischemic heart disease is mainly of atherosclerosis of the coronary artery.

It includes – Angina: Stable and unstable

And myocardial infection -Heart failure and arrhythmia.

Symptoms :

  • Chest pain
  • Chest heaviness
  • Fatigue
  • Dyspnea
  • Anxiety and fear
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Syncope
  • Breathlessness.

 

DIAGNOSIS

 

  • X-ray
  • Blood test.
  • CT scan
  • ECG
  • Complete blood count.etc.

TREATMENT

Combination of

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Medications
  • Surgery or other procedures

 

Hypertension (HTN)

  • Hypertension is a condition in which the pressure of blood in the arteries is persistently high.
  • Systolic ≥140mm Hg
    Diastolic ≥ 90 mm Hg

Causes or risk factors

 

  • Age: after 50yrs of age
  • Alcohol, smoking, and diabetes mellitus
  • Excessive dietary intake of sodium
  • Gender
  • Family history
  • Obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Stress etc.

Prevention

1.Lifestyle modification

The lifestyle modification mainly include,

  • Weight reduction
  • Dietary sodium reduction
  • Reduce smoking and alcohol
  • Exercise
  • Stress management

2.Pharmacological therapy

It includes treatment by the use of the following drugs :

Diuretics:chlorothiazide,furosemide

Beta-blockers:anteolol,propanolol

Alpha-blockers: prazosin

Vasodilators: Nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside

ACE inhibitors: Captopril, Ramipril

Calcium channel blockers: Amlodipine, Verapamil

    Cerebrovascular disease (Stroke)

  • It includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels supplying to the brain (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, etc.
  • That prevents brain to get enough oxygen and leads to damage of the brain
  • Narrowed, blocked or malfunction of cerebral arteries can lead to ischemic stroke,
  • Continually elevated blood pressure can also cause the tearing of vessels, leading to a hemorrhagic stroke.

    Common symptoms of heart stroke

    Common symptoms of stroke include the following:

    • Slurred speech.
    • Dizziness
    •  Walking difficulty
    • loss of balance of the body.
    • Unconsciousness and fainting
    • Severe headache
    • Blurred vision
    • Decreased sensation or numbness.
    • Changes in the mood.

     

    Diagnosis

  • Examination of the changes of stroke patient (like skin: look for xanthelasma, rashes, limb ischemia, Eyes: look for diabetic changes, retinal emboli, hypertensive changes)
  • ECG
  • Angiogram
  • MRI
  • CT-scan

Treatment

  • Rapid assessment and treatment are crucial.
  • Carotid endarterectomy
  • Carotid angioplasty
  • Stenting.

Prevention

Dietary modification:

  • No smoking
  • Eating a low-fat diet
  • Maintaining a healthy weight.

 

Healthy habits

  • Doing regular exercise
  • The blood pressure should be controlled.
  • Blood cholesterol should be lowered.

Environmental modification

  • Noise pollution control.

Congenital heart disease

 

  • Congenital heart disease is the disorder of heart and blood vessels that are present from birth.
  • Cardiovascular heart diseases affect the flow of blood from the heart and throughout the body.
  •  Can cause problems like:

Abnormal heart rhythms, heart infection (endocarditis), Stroke, Heart failure, Pulmonary hypertension, and Heart valve problems   

Prevention

  • Avoiding smoking habits during pregnancy.
  • Avoiding the consumption of alcohol and substance abuse by pregnant women.
  • Change in risky dietary pattern
  • Proper physical activities
  • Identification of risk group and early management
  • Avoid rubella syndrome by taking vaccination to prevent congenital diseases in children and infants.
  • Avoid contact with harmful chemicals such as solvents, nail polish removers, insecticides, and pesticides, etc.

 

Rheumatic heart disease

  • Rheumatic heart disease is the most serious complication of rheumatic fever in which the heart valves are damaged.
  • Similarly, it is caused by an episode and/or recurrent episodes of acute rheumatic fever.
  • It is the most common acquired heart disease in children, especially in developing countries.

Symptoms

  • The symptoms of rheumatic heart disease :
    • Chest pain.
    • Heart palpitations.
    • Shortness of breath.

Also:

    • Excessive fatigue.
    • Chest discomfort.
    • Rapid weight gain

Similarly :

  • Nodules under the skin.

In conclusion, it is a serious complication that affects our hearts.

Prevention :

    • Primary prevention
      • Rheumatic fever can be prevented by treating Group A streptococcus tonsillopharyngitis with antibiotics.

      Secondary Prevention

      •  Valve damage can be minimized by the administration of prophylactic antibiotics.

      Tertiary Prevention

      • Treatment of symptomatic rheumatic heart disease including medical therapy and operative intervention.

 

In conclusion, they are the diseases of the heart and blood vessels. In other words, they are the noncommunicable diseases in which the heart is severely affected. Similarly, they also affect the other parts of the body. Therefore, lifestyle modification is most important for the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases.

 

Also check: Cardiovascular diseases pdf

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