Categories
Health Education

What is deaf culture?

Introduction

Culturally deaf refers to individuals who identify with and participate in the language, culture, and community of Deaf people, based on a signed language.

Deaf culture does not perceive hearing loss and deafness from a pathological point of view, but rather from a socio-cultural linguistic point of view, indicated by a capital ‘D’ as in “Deaf culture.”

Culturally Deaf people may also use residual hearing, hearing aids, speechreading and gesturing to communicate with people who do not sign.

Deaf

Elements of deaf culture

•Deaf culture meets all five sociological criteria (language, values, traditions, norms and identity) for defining a culture.

Sign language is the prominent language e.g. American Sign Language (ASL) and LSQ are the two predominant visual languages used by Deaf people in Canada.

Values in Deaf people include the importance of clear language and communication for all in terms of expression and appreciation. Preserving  Deaf heritage, Deaf literature and Deaf art are examples of what Deaf people value.

Traditions include the stories, folklores, festivals, and theatres kept alive through Deaf generations, experiences and participation in Deaf cultural events. For example, Deaf Children Festivals in Deaf Schools, Mayfest, International Week of Deaf Awareness, etc. to celebrate and acknowledge the accomplishments and struggles of Deaf people throughout history.

Social norms of behaviour often cause cross-cultural conflicts between Deaf and hearing people.

•Culturally Deaf people have rules of etiquette for getting attention, walking through signed conversations, leave-taking, and otherwise politely negotiating.

Norms refer to rules of behaviour in the Deaf community. All cultures have their own set of behaviours that are deemed acceptable. For Deaf people, it includes getting someone’s attention appropriately, using direct eye contact and correct use of shoulder tapping.

Identity is one of the key components of the whole person. Accepting that one is Deaf and is proud of his/her culture and heritage and a contributing member of that society.

Members of deaf community

•Members of the Deaf community tend to view deafness as a difference in human experience rather than a disability or disease.

• Many members take pride in their Deaf identity.

•It includes deaf and hearing people , that share in the culture and use ASL.

It includes

•Deaf people

•Family of deaf person (parent, spouses, sinlings, grandparents….) •Interpreters

•Teacher of deaf and Hard of hearing

•CODA (Children Of Deaf Adult)

Rehabilitation services for deaf culture

•Assessment

• interpreter referral and advocacy

•Parental guidance

•Be aware of the varied needs of deaf individuals and familiar with the unique characteristics of the culture and community.

•  Rehabilitation of those with impaired hearing must start as soon as the handicap is diagnosed.

•The parents should take active part during the training sessions and at home.

•Enabling to tell the stories of hearing impaired people.

•Breaking deaf stereotypes and normalizing sign language through gaming beacuse gaming is the big platform for children to share their culture.

Using visual clues.

    This goes beyond separating sounds and words on the lips. It involves using all kinds of visual clues that give meaning to a message, such as the speaker’s facial expression, body language, etc.

  Improving speech and providing language therapy

This involves skill development in the production of speech sounds (by themselves, in words, and in conversation), speaking rate, breath control, loudness, and speech rhythms.

Managing communication.

Deaf students in the mainstream and found that their interaction with non-Deaf students was severely shortened due to communication barriers. The study also found that Deaf students tended for the most part to socialize with each other rather than with non-Deaf students .

Vocational rehabilitation Of Deaf

•The goal of VR is to provide employment related services that result in competitive employment in a career. That matches the VR consumer’s strengths, interests, abilities, and employment goals

•Career counseling, vocational assessment, assistive technology, job placement, soft skills development, and on-the-job training.

• The specific services provided by vocational rehabilitation are tailored to meet an individual’s specific career goal.

Also like our facebook page

For more information read the related articles

Foods for healthy teeth and gums

where is the G spot in the female reproductive system?

why are my period cramps worse at night?

https://healthcarerealitycheck.com/oral-health/foods-for-healthy-teeth-and-gums/
Categories
Pain

Medicines for headache

The common medicines used in headache are:

  • Paracetamol
  • Ibuprofen
  • Naproxen
  • Codeine
  • Aspirin
  • Diclofenac
  • Ketorolac etc.

Generally, NSAIDs (Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs) are used in treating headaches. Sometimes Opioid analgesics are also prescribed depending upon the severity of the headache.

Initially, the doctor recommends painkillers like Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen. If headaches are more than moderate, opioid analgesics are prescribed. In severe pain like migraine, you are prescribed to take opioids under the strict supervision of doctors. In complicated cases, the doctor may suggest taking an MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) and CT scan (Computerized tomography).

Headache

Headache is an unpleasant pain in the head. It leads to fever, fatigue, visual disturbance, uncomfortable movement, dizziness etc.

Headaches maybe caused because of :

  • Migraine
  • Sinus
  • Tension
  • Exposure to lights and electronics for a long time
  • Fever or disease

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

How to treat headache at home?

Headache is an common problem that everyone experience. If applied properly, headache may be treated at home by following means:

  • Take rest
  • Avoid stress, negativity
  • Exercise
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Avoid alcohol consumption
  • Sleep properly and adequately
  • Yoga

What is Migraine?

Migraine is a chronic, often one-sided pain in the head. Migraine occurs in episodic form. It is a severe condition usually affecting adults, especially females. Duration of headache may last from few hours to days. There are different types of migraine depending on duration, sites and symptoms you experience. For example, Vestibular migraine, menstrual migraine, abdominal migraine.

Common symptoms of migraine include headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances etc.

Categories
ICD-10

cirrhosis icd 10

The code for unspecified cirrhosis icd 10 is K74.6.

  • K74.3Primary biliary cirrhosis (Chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis)
  • K74.4Secondary biliary cirrhosis
  • K74.5Biliary cirrhosis, unspecified
cirrhosis icd 10

ICD-10-CM Codes

The code of cirrhosis icd 10 is given below:

Chapter XI
Diseases of the Digestive System (K00-K93)

This chapter includes :


K00-K14 Diseases of the oral cavity, salivary glands, and jaws.

K20-K31 Diseases of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

K35-K38 Diseases of the appendix.
K40-K46 Hernia.

K50-K52 No infective enteritis and colitis
K55-K64 Other diseases of intestines
K65-K67 Diseases of peritoneum
K70-K77 Diseases of the liver
K80-K87 Disorders of gallbladder, pancreas, and biliary tract.
K90-K93 Other diseases of the digestive system

K70-K77 Diseases of the liver

K74.0Hepatic fibrosis
K74.1Hepatic sclerosis
K74.2Hepatic fibrosis with hepatic sclerosis
K74.3Primary biliary cirrhosis (Chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis)
K74.4Secondary biliary cirrhosis
K74.5Biliary cirrhosis, unspecified

K74.6Other and unspecified cirrhosis of the liver(cirrhosis icd 10)


Cirrhosis of the liver:

  • NOS
  • Cryptogenic
  • Macro nodular
  • Micro nodular
  • Mixed type
  • Portal
  • Post necrotic

What is cirrhosis of the liver?


Liver cirrhosis is the scarring of the liver that leads to liver failure. This scarring occurs as a result of damage to the liver.

Statistics of liver cirrhosis

  • 50% of liver disease in the US is related to alcohol consumption.
  • The growing number of cases related to chronic hepatitis C.
  • 4th leading cause of death among people between 35 and 54 years of age.

What are the types of cirrhosis?

There are five types of cirrhosis. They are:
1) Alcohol (Laennee’s cirrhosis)
2) Post necrotic cirrhosis
3) Biliary cirrhosis
4) Cardiac cirrhosis
5) NASH (Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis)

Etiology and pathology

1) Alcoholic (Laennee’s cirrhosis):

  • It is associated with alcohol abuse.
  • Alcohol cirrhosis is preceded by a theoretically reversible fatty infiltration of the liver cells.
  • Widespread scar formation.

2) Post necrotic cirrhosis:

  • It is caused due to complications of toxic or viral hepatitis.
  • Post necrotic cirrhosis accounts for 20% of the cases of cirrhosis.
  • Broadbands of scar tissue form within the liver.


3) Biliary cirrhosis

  • It is associated with chronic biliary obstruction and infection
  • Biliary cirrhosis accounts for 15% of all cases of cirrhosis.
  • Normally secrete 1000 ml bile per day.

4) Cardiac cirrhosis:

  • Cardiac cirrhoisis is resulted from long-standing severe right-sided heart failure.

Overall causes of cirrhosis

  • Alcohol
  • Hepatitis-B infection
  • Hepatitis-C infection
  • Drugs ( alpha methyldopa, methotrexate)
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD)
  • Type IV glycogen storage disease.

What are the clinical manifestations of cirrhosis?

Clinical manifestation of cirrhosis

What are the warning signs of cirrhosis?

  • Yellowing of the eyes, skin, and nails.
  • Itchy skin.
  • Frequent bleeding.
  • Fatigue.
  • Swelling of the legs
  • Confusion and drowsiness.
  • Spider-like vessels on the skin.
  • Weight loss.


If you notice these symptoms in yourself or a loved once, consult the physician immediately.


Drug therapy for cirrhosis of the liver


There is no specific drug therapy for cirrhosis. Drugs are used to treat symptoms and complications of advanced liver disease.

  • Sodium retention (Lasix)
  • Aldosterone production (Spironaldactone )
  • B vitamins.
  • Ammonia retention (Lactulose)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

cirrhosis of the liver icd 10

K70-K77 Diseases of the liver

K74.0Hepatic fibrosis
K74.1Hepatic sclerosis
K74.2Hepatic fibrosis with hepatic sclerosis
K74.3Primary biliary cirrhosis (Chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis)
K74.4Secondary biliary cirrhosis
K74.5Biliary cirrhosis, unspecified

K74.6Other and unspecified cirrhosis of the liver(cirrhosis icd 10)


Cirrhosis of the liver:

  • NOS
  • Cryptogenic
  • Macro nodular
  • Micro nodular
  • Mixed type
  • Portal
  • Post necrotic

icd 10 code for alcoholic cirrhosis

  • K70.3 Alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver-
  • K70.30 Alcoholic cirrhosis of liver without ascites
  • K70.31 Alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver with ascites.

ALSO READ

How long can someone live with dialysis?

how to get rid of gingivitis?

Can scabies make you sick?

Cardiovascular diseases examples

ALSO LIKE OUR OFFICIAL FACEBOOK PAGE BY CLICKING HERE

Categories
Urinary System

how long can someone live on dialysis

Someone lives on dialysis for 5-10 years on average. The life expectancy on dialysis depends on the other medical conditions you have and whether you come in all dialysis treatments or not. The average life expectancy on kidney dialysis is 5-10 years. However, many patients have lived well for 20 years to 30 years on dialysis.

What is dialysis?

how long can someone live on dialysis

Dialysis is an artificial process by which waste materials and excess water is taken out of the blood. It is the most important function of the kidney but when they fail, artificial dialysis does it. The way of doing the work of the kidney artificially is dialysis.

What are the indications to use dialysis?

The indications to use dialysis are:

i. Acute indications :

  • The intoxication of fluid.
  • Uremia complications.
  • Electrolyte abnormality.
  • Overload of fluid.

ii. Chronic indications

  • Low glomerular  filtration.
  • Symptomatic renal failure.
  • Difficult to control the overload of fluid medically.

What are the main principles of dialysis?

The main principles of dialysis are :

1)Diffusion: Molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.

2) Osmosis: Osmosis is the process in which water moves from an area of higher solute concentration to an area of lower solute concentration.

3) Ultrafiltration: Water moving under the high pressure to an area of lower pressure.

What are the types of dialysis?

  • There are two types of dialysis: first is peritoneal dialysis, (PD) and second is hemodialysis, (HD).
  • Both the processes filter the blood and remove urea, creatinine, other waste material, and excess water; but important things such as blood cells and nutrients are retained.

1)  Peritoneal dialysis (PD)

In peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneum is used as a filter which is the part of our body. The peritoneum is a natural membrane that lies our abdomen from inside and this also covers our abdominal organs like the stomach, intestine, liver, and so on.

In appearance, it is like a balloon but it has small holes due to which it can be used as a dialysis membrane.

Peritoneum has two layers: one layer lines the abdominal wall from inside and the other layer covers the abdominal organs. These two layers have space and this space is the peritoneal cavity.

During peritoneal dialysis, this peritoneal cavity is used for dialysis fluid. Normally peritoneal cavity contains 100 ml or 0.1 l fluid but it can carry 5000ml or 5l of fluid. For this reason, it is used in peritoneal dialysis to filter blood.

How does peritoneal dialysis work?

Sterile dialysate fluid through an abdominal catheter at intervals is introduced into the peritoneal cavity.

Urea and creatinine are removed from the blood by osmosis and diffusion.

Ultrafiltration occurs in the peritoneal dialysis through an osmotic gradient created by using a dialysate with a higher glucose concentration.

Location of an abdominal catheter
  • The abdominal catheter is located about 3 to 5 cm below the umbilicus because this area is relatively free from large blood vessels.
  • Peritoneal dialysis involves a series of exchanges or cycles which include infusion, dwell, and the drainage of the dialysate.

What are the complications of peritoneal dialysis?

  • Peritonitis
  • Bleeding
  • Hypertriglyceridemia
  • Abdominal hernia
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Low back pain

2) Haemodialysis (HD)

In hemodialysis (HD), a machine or artificial kidney is used, with the help of which waste materials and excess water is taken out of the body. This process is also called ultrafiltration.

In hemodialysis, the blood laden with toxin and nitrogenous wastes is diverted from the patient to the machine which is a dialyze. The blood is cleansed and then returned to the patient in the dialyzer.

A dialyzer which is also called an artificial kidney serves as a synthetic semi-permeable membrane. The dialyzer replaces the renal glomeruli and tubules as filters for the impaired kidneys.

Principles of hemodialysis

Diffusion:

The toxins and wastes in the blood are removed by diffusion that means they move from an area of higher concentration in the blood to a lower area of concentration in the dialysate.

Osmosis:

Excess water removes from the blood by osmosis, in which water moves from the blood to the dialysate bath.

Ultrafiltration:

Water moving under the high pressure to an area of lower pressure which is accomplished by applying negative pressure or a suctioning force to the dialysis membrane.

What are the complications of hemodialysis?

  • Hypertriglyceridemia
  • Heart failure
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Anemia
  • Gastric ulcers
  • Hypotension
  • Painful muscle cramping
  • Air embolism
  • Dysrhythmias

Choosing between Peritoneal Dialysis(PD) and Haemodialysis (HD)

The patient should keep three things in mind before choosing between Peritoneal Dialysis(PD) and Haemodialysis (HD). They are:

i.   PD is more suitable in the early stages of dialysis. If the kidneys are working even a little bit then with the help of the PD, kidneys can work for quite a long time.

ii.  Diabetes patients have generally weak veins and hemodialysis needs veins. So to save our veins for later stages PD can be done. This way when PD becomes ineffective then later it is easy to do hemodialysis.

iii.The patients can do PD at home while HD needs hospital admission. Many patients opt for the PD in the starting to avoid frequents visits to the hospital.

Will dialysis cure my Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)?

Dialysis cannot cure Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), it does not cure symptoms completely neither do the kidneys return health. But dialysis control your symptoms and prevent you from dying.

Dialysis provides only 5% of the work done by the two normal kidneys. This means that when a patient is on dialysis then he has 10% of normal kidney function; 5% of the dialysis and 5% of his kidneys.

Now, this 10% sufficient for a person to live on dialysis?

No, but to remain alive it is necessary to have dialysis. If immediately after the diagnosis of the initial stage of Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD), the patient starts homeopathic treatment, then the requirements of dialysis get delayed.

Multivitamin tablets during dialysis or kidney failure

The kidney patient should not take any multivitamin tablets. In kidney failure conditions, our kidneys are not able to excrete these tablets because they contain an excessive amount of vitamins. Due to which vitamins accumulate in the body giving rise to the condition hypervitaminosis which is like poisoning.

What happens when you don’t get enough dialysis?

When you don’t get enough dialysis there will be:

  1. Too much if urea in your blood that will causes you to:
  • Feel tired,
  • Poor sleep
  • Itching confusion
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • bad taste in your mouth

When dialysis removes urea from your blood. You will have:

  • more energy
  • Sleep better
  • Eat better
  • Think more clearly

2. You will have excess fluid in your heart, excess fluid will cause:

  • Heart to pump harder
  • Extra strain on the heart
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Weakened heart.

Attending all dialysis treatments will help to control the amount of fluid that accumulates in the body. You will have less swelling in your legs, hands, feet, and face.

3. There is an accumulation of extra minerals in our blood when our kidneys are not able to filter the blood. For example phosphorus.

The accumulation of phosphorus causes calcification of tissues in the heart, arteries, lungs, and other organs.

Dialysis treatment along with a low phosphorus diet will:

Reduce the amount of phosphorus in your blood and

Protect your organs from calcification

4.When any area of the body doesn’t receive adequate blood flow, it may develop painful wounds. Phosphorus control helps prevent enlarged parathyroid glands too much parathyroid hormone. Too much of parathyroid hormone can cause low calcium, bones become weak and they break more easily.

5. Dialysis helps to maintain a safe level of potassium in your blood i.e. 3.5-5.5. A high level of potassium causes muscle weakness, muscle cramps, irregular heartbeat, and cardiac arrest.

So it’s important that you come in all dialysis treatment and stay the prescribed time so that your blood can be adequately cleaned.

How long can someone live on dialysis?

Someone requires dialysis treatment for his/her whole life unless he/she is able to get a kidney transplant. The life expectancy on dialysis depends on the other medical conditions you have and whether you come in all dialysis treatments or not. The average life expectancy on kidney dialysis is 5-10 years. However, many patients have lived well for 20 years to 30 years on dialysis. It’s important that you come in all dialysis treatments and stay the prescribed time so that your blood can be adequately cleaned.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Kidney dialysis life expectancy

The life expectancy on dialysis depends on the other medical conditions you have and whether you come in all dialysis treatments or not. The average life expectancy on kidney dialysis is 5-10 years. However, many patients have lived well for 20 years to 30 years on dialysis.

how long can someone live on dialysis with diabetes

The five years survival rate after the start of dialysis for diabetes is about 29%.

how long can someone live on kidney dialysis

The life expectancy on dialysis depends on the other medical conditions you have and whether you come in all dialysis treatments or not. The average life expectancy on kidney dialysis is 5-10 years. However, many patients have lived well for 20 years to 30 years on dialysis. So, someone can live on dialysis for 5-10 years on average

how long can someone live on dialysis without kidney function

Someone can live on dialysis for 5-10 years on average without kidney function. However, many patients have lived well for 20 years to 30 years on dialysis. It’s important that you come in all dialysis treatments and stay the prescribed time so that your blood can be adequately cleaned.

ALSO , READ

How do you know if you have pneumonia?

What’s a tuberculosis test?

How malaria is diagnoses?

What causes ulcers?

How to get rid of gingivitis?

ALSO LIKE OUR OFFICIAL PAGE BY CLICKING HERE

Categories
Respiratory System

How do you know if you have pneumonia?

If you have pneumonia, you will have the following common signs and symptoms :

  • Coughing possibly production of sputum. In bacterial infection, the sputum is red-brown, yellow, and green whereas in viral and mycoplasma pneumonia the sputum is a thin whitish color.
  • Sweating
  • Fever and shivering chills.
  • Chest pain that gets worse by deep breathing and coughing which is also known as Pleuritic pain
  • Muscle pain and weakness
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Tachypnea, dyspnea
  • Increased breathing rate
  • Chest indrawing
  • Crepitation or wheeze sound heard
  • Diarrhea, Nausea, or Vomiting
  • Cyanosis.
  • Confusion, convulsion, or coma.

What is pneumonia?

how do you know if you have pneumonia?

Pneumonia is the infection of lung parenchyma. It is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma.

It is caused by microorganisms which include bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, and fungi.

  • Incidence of pneumonia among :
  • Children younger than 5 years is 35-40 per 1000
  • Adolescents of age 12-15 years – 7 per 1000

The mortality of pneumonia in developed countries is 1 per 1000.

What is the classification of pneumonia?

1) Aetiological classification :


a) Bacterial pneumonia:

  • Pneumococcus, streptococcus, staphylococcus, klebsiella, H. influenza, etc.


b) Viral pneumonia:

  • Influenza and parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, etc.


c) Mycoplasma:

  • It is another cause of pneumonia.
  • These organisms contain traits of both bacteria and viruses but don’t belong to either of the categories.
  • Pneumonia caused by mycoplasma is not usually severe.


d) Allergic pneumonia:

  • This type of pneumonia is due to allergens such as hot, colds, dust, etc.


e) Aspirated pneumonia:

  • It is due to the aspiration of food from the stomach to lung.


f) Chemical pneumonia:

  • It is due to exposure to petroleum products.


g) Fungal pneumonia:

  • It is caused by fungi from soil or bird droppings

2) Anatomical classification:


a) Lobar pneumonia:

  • It involves a single lobe.


b) Lobular pneumonia:

  • It involves more than one lobe.


3) Pathological classification:


a) Lobar pneumonia:

  • In this pneumonia, only lobes are involved.


b) Bronchopneumonia:

  • Bronchioles and alveoli are involved.


c) Interstitial pneumonia:

  • Interstitial tissue are involved in interstitial pneumonia


d) Military pneumonia:

  • Blood vessels and lymphatic are involved.


4) Radiological classification


a) Upper zone: right and left
b) Middle zone: only right
c) Lower zone: right and left


5) Classification on the basis of Location :


a) Community-acquired pneumonia:

  • Community-acquired pneumonia is acquired in social surroundings and does not involves hospitals and health care facilities.

b) Hospital-acquired pneumonia:

  • This refers to bacterial pneumonia that is acquired during a hospital stay.
  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia is more serious as the patient has other medical conditions.


c) Ventilator acquired pneumonia:

  • This is a type of pneumonia that is acquired by a person when he is in a ventilator

What is the pathophysiology of pneumonia?

  1. Exposure to the causative agent.
  2. Causative agent goes to the bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs
  3. Induces an intense inflammatory and immune response
  4. The influx of neutrophils and macrophages in the lung parenchyma
  5. Hypersecretion of mucus glands
  6. Increase secretion of mucus
  7. Activation of neutrophils and macrophages
  8. Antigen-antibody reaction
  9. Pneumonia

What are the risk factors of pneumonia?

The risk factors of pneumonia are :

  • Newly born babies and children below the age of two.
  • People of age above 65 years
  • Winter months
  • Smoke environment
  • Lower socio-economic
  • Risk is more in male than female
  • Regular Smokers
  • Chronic illness of lung
  • Those with weak immune systems possibly because of certain medical conditions. Underlying illness such as :
  • Sickle cell,
  • cystic fibrosis,
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease,
  • bronchopulmonary dysplasia,
  • reactive airway disease,
  • congenital heart disease,
  • immunodeficiency syndromes,
  • neuromuscular disease, seizure disorder etc.

How do you know if you have pneumonia?


The signs and symptoms of pneumonia differ every patient depending upon infection and patients states of health. If you have pneumonia you will have the following signs and symptoms:

  • Coughing possibly production of sputum. In bacterial infection, the sputum is red-brown, yellow, and green whereas in viral and mycoplasma pneumonia the sputum is a thin whitish color.
  • Sweating
  • Fever and shivering chills.
  • Chest pain that gets worse by deep breathing and coughing which is also known as Pleuritic pain
  • Muscle pain and weakness
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Tachypnea, dyspnea
  • Increased breathing rate
  • Chest indrawing
  • Crepitation or wheeze sound heard
  • Diarrhea, Nausea, or Vomiting
  • Cyanosis is caused by blood that is not well oxygenated.
  • Confusion, convulsion, or coma.

What are the investigations or diagnosis of pneumonia?

The diagnosis of pneumonia includes :

  • All routine examination with –
  • Chest x-ray
  • Blood test
  • Sputum examination ( for Acid Fast Bacilli, gram staining, culture, and sensitivity)
  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Bronchoscopy
  • CT-scan

What are the complications of pneumonia?

The complications of pneumonia are :

  • Bacteremia (Presence of bacteria in the bloodstream)
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Pleural effusion
  • Endocarditis
  • Lung abscess
  • Septic arthritis
  • Respiratory failure
  • Shock

What is the treatment of pneumonia?


1) For Bacterial Pneumonia:

  • Antibiotics ( Cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin)
  • Antipyretics / analgesics
  • Oxygen inhalation
  • Bronchodilator (Asthaline)

2.For viral, chemical, allergic, aspirated, and fungal pneumonia

  • Symptomatic treatment
  • Supportive treatment
  • Antibiotics for prophylaxis
  • Anti-histamine for allergic

What are the preventive measures of pneumonia?

The preventive measures of pneumonia are :

  • Stop smoking
  • Get a yearly flu shot
  • Get a pneumonia vaccine if younger than 6, older than 65 or have certain health problems.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How do you get walking pneumonia?

The bacteria that causes walking pneumonia is M. pneumonia. It damages the lining of the respiratory system ( windpipe, lungs, or throat). It is contagious because it can transmit through airborne droplets that are dispersed when an infected person talks, sneezes, coughs or laughs.

How to treat walking pneumonia?

Walking pneumonia is a commonly used term for a mild case of pneumonia that does not cause disability or requires hospitalization. Like regular pneumonia, walking pneumonia is a lung infection. Walking pneumonia begins gradually. In fact, it usually takes 1 to 3 weeks to reach the full stage. You can differentiate walking pneumonia from the common cold because cold will get better after weeks, whereas walking pneumonia tends to get worse. Generally, a doctor will prescribe antibiotics after making a walking pneumonia diagnosis. As the antibiotics begin to work, you will gradually feel better, but typically takes about a week after you start taking them to full recovery.

How can you get pneumonia?

We can get pneumonia by microorganisms which include bacteria,(Pneumococcus, streptococcus), mycobacteria, viruses, (Influenza and parainfluenza virus), fungi (fungi from soil or bird droppings), due to allergens such as hot, colds, dust, etc, due to the aspiration of food from the stomach to lung and due to exposure of chemical substances such as petroleum products, etc.

Does pneumonia hurt?

If you have pneumonia, you will have the following common signs and symptoms :

  • Coughing possibly production of sputum. In bacterial infection, the sputum is red-brown, yellow, and green whereas in viral and mycoplasma pneumonia the sputum is a thin whitish color.
  • Sweating
  • Fever and shivering chills.
  • Chest pain.
  • Muscle pain and weakness
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Tachypnea, dyspnea
  • Increased breathing rate
  • Diarrhea, Nausea, or Vomiting
  • Cyanosis.
  • Confusion, convulsion, or coma.

How to treat viral pneumonia?

  • Symptomatic treatment
  • Supportive treatment
  • Zanamivir, oseltamivir or peramivir for influenza virus
  • Ribavirin for Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

ALSO READ ,

What causes ulcers?

What blood test shows anemia?

When is blood cancer awareness months?

What blood test shows inflammation?

What blood test shows kidney function?

ALSO LIKE OUR OFFICIAL FACEBOOK PAGE BY CLICKING HERE

Categories
Reproductive System

why are my period cramps worse at night?

What Are Menstrual Cramps?

Menstrual cramps also called dysmenorrhea in medical term are tender or cramping pains in the lower abdomen. Just before and during their menstrual periods women face the problem of period cramps.

For some women, period cramp is merely annoying. For others, it can be severe enough to interfere with everyday activities for a few days every month.

Period cramps are some of the most common, annoying parts of your period. They can strike right before or during that time of the month. Many women get them routinely.

Cramps can range from mild to severe. They usually happen for the first time a year or two after a girl first gets her period. With age, they usually become less painful and may stop entirely after you have your first baby.

Inflammation can cause the worsening of other premenstrual symptoms, like mood changes.

period cramps

Period Cramp Symptoms

You may have:

  • Severe or moderate kind of aching pain in your belly mostly in lower stomach
  • Usually period pain starts 1 to 3 days before your period, peaks 24 hours after the onset of your period and subsides in 2 to 3 days
  • A feeling of pressure in your belly
  •  Pain in various parts of body like hips, lower back, and inner thighs  
  • Headache
  • Dizziness

When cramps get more severe, symptoms may include:

  • Upset stomach
  • Vomiting
  • Loose stools
  • The ache may be dull and even continuous
  • Pain slowly radiates to lower back and thighs

Causes

Causes of Menstrual cramps are:

  • The tissue that lines uterus begins to grow into the muscular walls of the uterus.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease. This infection of the female reproductive organs is usually caused by sexually transmitted bacteria.
  • Excess secretion of hormones called prostaglandins
  • Smoking, and alcohol consumption also causes adverse cramps.
  • People are more likely to have painful periods if they have heavy or long period bleeding, if they started menstruating early in life,
  • Irregular periods.
  • Other factors that have been associated with painful periods include being thin, being younger than 30
  • Having a pelvic infection, and being sterilized.

Causes of period cramps being worse at night

  • Menstrual cramps are most likely caused by an excess of prostaglandins. it is the hormone-like compounds that are released from the uterine lining also called as endometrium is prepared to be shed. Prostaglandins help the uterus contract and relax, so that the endometrium can detach and flow out of your body. But at night our body doesn’t do any work especially while sleeping whole body will be in relax so do our uterus. Due to which the hormone prostaglandins only needs to contracts the uterus. Hormone will be in excess because it is not supposed to perform properly at night. So the excess of prostaglandin cause excess cramps.
  • While sleeping at night due to our incorrect sleeping pattern, blood flow is reduced, and the supply of oxygen to the uterus muscle tissue decreases, causing pain
  • Cervical stenosis is also the cause of period cramps. In some women, the opening of the cervix is small enough to block menstrual flow, causing a painful increase of pressure within the uterus. So during night uterus tends to flow more blood outside because of this pressure will be increased and cramps get more severe at night.
  • During menstruation, the uterus contracts more strongly than normal contraction. If the uterus contracts too strongly, it can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to the muscle tissue of the uterus. Pain results when part of the muscle briefly loses its supply of oxygen. 

Also like our like our facebook page

Also read the article

Are Bananas good for UTI?

where is the G spot in the female reproductive system?

https://healthcarerealitycheck.com/oral-health/foods-for-healthy-teeth-and-gums/

Categories
cardiovascular system

Exact location of heart in the human body.

The location of heart in the human body is obliquely in mediastinum between two lungs in the thoracic cavity.

How many chambers are there in human heart? What are they?

There are four chambers in human heart.

They are:

  • Right atrium
  • Right Ventricle
  • Left Atrium
  • Left ventricle

What is the location of ventricles in heart of human body?

The location of ventricles in heart of human body is that they are located to the lower chambers of the heart.

What is heart?

exact location of heart in human body

The heart is a hallow, blunt and cone-shaped (conical) muscular pumping organ. Its size is approximately 12cm X 9cm. It is pinkish in color .it is weight about 250gm in female and 300 gm in male.

What is the structure of heart?

The structure of heart consists of following structures:-

  • Pericardium
  • Myocardium
  • Endocardium

Pericardium

Pericardium has two layers which covers the heart from outside. It is consist of fibrous and serous pericardium.

Fibrous pericardium:-

The formation of fibrous pericardium is by fibrous connective tissue.. It prevents the heart from over distension (overstretching).

Serous pericardium:-

It has two layers.

  • Parietal pericardium: – lining of fibrous pericardium.
  • Visceral pericardium: – lining of myocardium.

Between these two layers a narrow space is present called pericardial space filled with pericardial fluid. This fluid reduces the friction, protects the heart from shocks and injuries and allow the it’s free movement.

Myocardium

Myocardium is a specialized muscle present in the middle layer of heart. It is also known as cardiac muscle, which is only found in the heart. It is performs the work of the heart.

Endocardium

It is inner layer of heart. It is consist of squamous epithelium

Flow of blood through the heart

  • The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body except the lungs. Through the two main vessels.

Superior venacava-It collects blood from head and upper part of body.

Inferior venacava It collects blood from lower part of the body.

  • The blood is pumped into the right ventricle due to the contraction of right atrium.
  • The contraction of right ventricle .the deoxygenated blood is passed to the lungs through pulmonary artery.
  • After oxygenation in lungs, the oxygenated blood is return to left atrium through pulmonary vein.
  • The blood is passed into the left ventricle due to contraction of left atrium.
  • The oxygenated blood is passed to the aorta and distributed to all parts of the body due to contraction of left ventricle.

What is the location of atrium in the heart?

The location of atrium in heart is in upper chamber. The right and left atrium together forms the upper thin walled chambers.

What is the blood supply to the heart?

  • Heart is supply with arterial blood by the right and left coronary arteries which branch from the aorta

  • Many small veins collect the deoxygenated blood and joins to form the coronary sinus. This opens into the right atrium

Nerve supply to the heart

The cardiovascular center in the medulla oblongata, the nerve supply to the heart is sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.

It is branch of autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic stimulation is increase heart rate and parasympathetic stimulation is decrease heart rate.

 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 

What are the most common clinical disorders of layers of heart?

The most common clinical disorders of layers of heart are as follows:

  • Pericarditis Inflammation of pericardium
  • Pericardial effusionAccumulation of fluid in pericardial space
  • MyocarditisInflammation of Myocardium
  • EndocarditicInflammation of Endocardium.

Can location of  heart in human body differs from person to person?

No, location of human heart in human body does not differs from person to person except in some exceptional cases.

Which chamber of the heart is thickest? Why?

Left ventricle of the hear is the thickest one because it has to pump the blood throughout the whole body.

 

Why the ventricles have thicker wall than atriums?

Ventricles have to pump the blood outside the heart but atriums pump the blood within the heart that is why the ventricles have thicker wall than atriums.

Which atrium receives the oxygenated blood?

Left atrium receives the oxygenated blood.

Which ventricle pump the blood to the lungs?

Right ventricle pump the blood to the lungs.

Which atrium receives the deoxygenated blood?

Right atrium receives the deoxygenated blood from the whole body.

 

 

Also Read, What does peripheral Nervous System do?

Definition of food adulteration.

What allows oxygen to pass into your blood?

Syphilis is caused by which bacteria

Also,

LIKE OUR OFFICIAL FACEBOOK PAGE BY CLICKING HERE

 

 

Categories
Nervous System

Causes of depression

The major causes of depression are:

  • Hormonal and chemical imbalance
  • Medications
  • Medical problems
  • Stress
  • Unexpected events.etc.

What is depression?

Depression is a serious medical condition characterised by mood swing, stress, lack of energy and other abnormal behaviours.
Depression may occur at any time and to any age groups in life. Teenagers, Women, Pregnant women are more prone to depression.

Causes of depression

  1. Impaired neurotransmitters: Neurotransmitters, also called as chemical messengers have a major role in regulating mental activities. Three neurotransmitters especially: dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin trigger mental disturbance when imbalanced. Dopamine: Balanced dopamine is regarded to create positive vibes and good feelings. Depression may occur when the dopamine level decreases. Norepinephrine: Norepinephrine and adrenaline have a role in ‘fight or flight’. Too much of norepinephrine is associated with Mania. Too low norepinephrine along with other imbalanced chemicals is also believed to cause depression. Serotonin: Serotonin is the hormone that balances our mood. Low-level serotonin is associated with depression or anxiety.
  2. Hormones: Change in hormonal balance causes depression. For example; imbalance of thyroid hormones in pregnant women causes depression, Hormonal changes may cause depression among teenagers.
  3. Stress: Family problems, divorce, loss of loved ones.
  4. Medications: Corticosteroids, Isotretinoin.
  5. Medical problems: Diseases like cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases.
  6. Self-esteem: Negative impact on self by physical or mental issues, Victim of abuse or violence, Pessimistic thoughts, Gender: being gay, transgenders, Hopelessness, Helplessness, Social isolations by factors like HIV/AIDS, Consistent failures etc.
  7. Unusual events: Suicide, Pressure in the job, Family problems, Isolation, Bullying etc.

How to treat depression?

Depression can be treated with:

Medications: Antidepressants

Exercise

Yoga

Avoid consumption of alcohols drugs and quit smoking

Psychotherapy

Coping

Self-help

Adventures etc.

Categories
Uncategorized

Are Kidney Diseases Hereditary?

So, Are Kidney Diseases Hereditary?

The diseases that are those diseases that can be passed from the parents to the children. Kidney diseases can be are either passed from the parents or can be developed after birth. Therefore, some kidney diseases are hereditary.

What are the hereditary diseases of the Kidney?

Kidney’s General Anatomy

Hereditary diseases result from gene disorders. In humans, genes carry genetic information. However, the mutation of such genes result in genetic diseases.

Firstly, some of the most common kidney diseases are:

  • Polycystic kidney disease (PKD): Generally, PKD occurs in adults. The most affected organ is the kidney. Although, other organs like the liver, the spleen can also be affected. Fluid-filled pouches are the main character of the disease. The kidney is the main organ where we see the pouch of fluid. It is a hereditary disease of the kidney.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Generally, this is the most common kidney disease. The main function of the kidney is to filter blood. However, in this disease the kidneys cannot do that. The kidneys fail to filter blood effectively. The most common reason of Chronic Kidney Disease are diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Lupus Nephritis: The Kidneys swell and become irritated. It occurs due to a condition called lupus. Generally, we have an immune system in our body. This system is responsible to fight and protect the body. However, due to various reasons, the system can attack itself and the body. This is autoimmunity. This leads to diseases in many organs. The kidney is one of the organs that is affected.

What is Polycystic Kidney Disease?

Comparison between Normal kidney and Polycystic kidney

It is a hereditary disease of the kidney. In PKD, fluid-filled cysts develop within the kidney and affect its functions. The cysts can vary in size and can grow later.

Some of the symptoms of PKD are:

  • High blood pressure
  • Pain in back and sides
  • Increased abdomen size
  • Kidney stones
  • Kidney failures
  • Urinary Tract Infection

What are the complications of PKD?

The disease can progress and therefore, become complex.

Some of the complications are:

  • Chronic pain in sides and back
  • The cysts can develop in the liver
  • Kidney functions are compromised
  • High blood pressure

Lastly, although it is a genetic disease, we can reduce its risks by certain measures like avoiding smoking, regular exercise, less alcohol consumption.

Categories
Digestive System

What causes ulcers?

The causes of ulcers are :

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Smoking
  • Stress
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  • Genetic factors
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • Close contact with infected persons

What is a peptic ulcer?

What causes ulcers

A peptic ulcer is an ulcer formation in the upper GI tract that affects the lining of the stomach which is a “gastric ulcer”, duodenum which is a “duodenal ulcer”, or the lower part of the esophagus.

Around 4% of the population has pectic ulcers.

Internal bleeding, blockage of the stomach, and perforation are the complications of peptic ulcer disease. Bleeding occurs in as many as 15% of people with the condition.

What are the types of peptic ulcers?

There are three types of ulcers they include:

  1. Gastric ulcer: the ulcer that occurs on the inside of the stomach
  2. Esophagus ulcer: the ulcer that develops inside the esophagus
  3. Duodenal ulcer: the ulcer that occurs in the upper and first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum.

What causes ulcers?

A peptic ulcer occurs when the inner surface of the digestive tract is eroded by the acidic juice that the cell of the stomach lining secrets.

Our digestive tract is coated with a mucous layer and it protects against acid. An increase in the amount of the acid and decrease in the amount of the mucous can create a painful open sore which is ulcers.


The major causes of ulcers are:

1) Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)

It is a bacteria that lives in the mucous layers that cover and protect the tissues lining the stomach and the small intestine.

This bacteria often causes no problems. But, in others, it can raise the amount of the acid, break down the protective mucous layer, and irritate the digestive tract producing an ulcer.

The bacteria are transmitted from one person to another by close contacts such as kissing, and also through unclean water and food.

2) Frequent use of certain pain relievers

Such as aspirin and other NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve, others ), ketoprofen.

Another type of pain meds like acetaminophen will not lead to peptic ulcers.

The major causes of ulcers are :

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Smoking
  • Stress
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  • Genetic factors
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • Close contact with infected persons

What is the pathophysiology of ulcers?

  1. Gastric ulcer: The gastric ulcer is due to a decrease in the mucosal protection against gastric acid.
  2. Duodenal ulcer: It is due to an increase in the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin and there is a decrease in mucosal protection.

What are the risk factors of peptic ulcers?

  • Smoking
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Upper abdominal radiotherapy
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Crohn’s disease

Eating a lot of spicy foods does not cause peptic ulcers but they can aggravate the symptoms.

What are the symptoms of peptic ulcer disease?

  • Burning abdominal pain
  • Heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Fatty food intolerance
  • Bloating or abdominal fullness
  • Blood in the stool or dark stool
  • Changes in appetite
  • Vomiting of blood
  • Unintended weight loss

Clinical features of gastric ulcer

  • Epigastric pain greater with meal
  • Weight loss
  • Lab findings: decreased H+ secretion, increased gastric levels

Clinical features of duodenal ulcer

  • Epigastric pain decreases with meals
  • Weight gain
  • Lab findings: increased H+ secretion

What is the diagnosis of ulcers?

  1. At first, the doctor takes a medical history for the diagnosis of peptic ulcers and performs a physical examination then checks for bloating in the belly and checks the pain.
  2. To know for sure that there is an ulcer the doctor may perform an upper endoscopy. For this procedure, the doctor inserts a long tube with a camera down your throat and into the stomach and small intestine to examine your digestive system and look for an ulcer. If the doctor detects an ulcer then he will remove the small tissue for examination in the laboratory.
  3. An upper gastrointestinal series also called a barium swallow may also be carried out. Doctor asks you to drink a thick liquid which is called barium to perform this procedure. This liquid coats the digestive tracts which makes your doctor view and treat your ulcer easily.
  4. The doctor may recommend breath, stool, or blood test to determine if the H. pylori bacteria are present in your stomach. This is done because the bacteria is a cause of the peptic ulcer.

What are the treatments of ulcers?

  • The treatments of ulcers depend on the cause of the ulcer. Treatment will involve killing the bacteria, reducing the use of NSAIDs, and helping the ulcer heal.
  • If the bacteria are present, the doctor will prescribe a combination of antibiotics medicines to kill them. These may include tinidazole(Tindamax), amoxicillin (Amoxil), clarithromycin (Biaxin), and others.
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) medication to block stomach acid.
  • Acid blockers such as ranitidine(Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid) to reduce the amount of stomach acid released into the digestive tract.
  • Medications such as sucralfate (Carafate) to coat and protect the lining of the stomach and small intestine.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What does an ulcer feel like?

  • The most common symptom of the peptic ulcer is abdominal pain.
  • Irrespective of pain, the peptic ulcers may also cause severe signs and symptoms such as:
  • vomiting of blood,
  • dark blood in the stool,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • unexplained weight loss, and
  • change in appetite.

What causes stomach ulcers?

The cause of stomach ulcer are :

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Smoking, Excessive alcohol use
  • Stress
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  • Genetic factors
  • Close contact with infected persons

What are the symptoms of an ulcer?

The Symptoms of an ulcer are :

  • Burning abdominal pain
  • Heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Fatty food intolerance
  • Bloating or abdominal fullness
  • Bloody or dark stool
  • Changes in appetite
  • Vomiting of blood
  • Unintended weight loss


How long it takes an ulcer to heal depends largely on the cause?

  • Peptic ulcers are caused in one of the two ways: bacteria, or Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). Examples of NSAIDs include aspirin and ibuprofen.
  • When you start to stop taking NSAIDs, ulcers that are caused by NSAIDs start to heal in a short period of time. Your doctor will suggest that you take anti-acid medicine for 2-6 weeks to relieve pain and promote healing.
  • When the bacteria are killed then the bacterial infections start to heal. Expect to take antibiotics along with acid-suppressing medicines for two weeks. After that, you should continue by taking an acid-suppressant for another four to eight weeks.
  • There is a possibility of a bacterial ulcer to heal itself without antibiotics temporarily.
  • However, if the bacteria are not completely killed, the ulcer tends to reoccur, or another ulcer forms nearby.

Are ulcers contagious?

Ulcers are not contagious but peptic ulcers are contagious. The H.pyloric bacteria is transmitted from one person to another by close contact such as kissing.

What to eat when you have an ulcer?

When you have a stomach ulcer you can eat :

1) Cabbage:

Vitamin U present in cabbage is the factor that can heal the ulcer.


2) Radishes:

Contains fiber that aids in digestion and absorbs zinc and other minerals.


3) Cauliflower:

Contains sulforaphane that helps in fighting with Helicobacter Pylori Bacteria.


4) Apples:

Apples contain flavonoids that inhibit the growth of H.pyloric bacteria


5) Yoghurt:

Yogurt contains probiotics, lactobacillus, and acidophilus that help in treating stomach ulcers.


6) Carrots:

vitamin A in carrots helps in warding off stomach ulcers, gastric inflammation, or indigestion.


7) Broccoli:

Broccoli contains sulforaphane that can eliminate the bacteria that cause stomach ulcers.

8) Honey:

Honey inhibits bacterial growth and relieves a stomach ulcer.


9) Blueberries:

Blueberries are a rich source of antioxidants and nutrients which help to improve your immune system.


10) Olive oil:

Olive oil contains phenol that can act as an anti-bacterial agent, which prevents from Helicobacter pylori.

ALSO READ:

Advantages and disadvanatges of methods and media of health education

Advantages of school health services

How malaria is diagnoses?

Can blood test detect colon cancer?

How to get rid of gingivitis?

ALSO LIKE OUR OFFICIAL FAECEBOOK PAGE BY CLICKING HERE